World War Ebooks Catalog
Although the Victorians had introduced and pioneered then radical legislation, the prevailing society of extreme wealth existing alongside extreme poverty had changed little, but the First World War was to bring social change on an unprecedented scale. Throughout the world, societies were changing as the horrors of the war began to emerge. The revolution in Russia had overthrown its ruling class Trade Unions in the UK were gaining considerable standing men were returning to England physically injured and mentally disturbed women had been employed in the previous male preserves and were not prepared to lose their emerging equality. There was a lot of pressure on government to act on ill-health issues such as tuberculosis and the still high rate of infant mortality. The emphasis was moving toward creating healthier housing and a better standard of living. In 1911, 9.1 per cent of the population lived at a density of more than two per room, and by 1921 this had risen to 9.9 per cent...
These were first installed on roofs before the Second World War and have subsequently superseded clay tiles to such an extent that, for the majority of the period since 1945, they have captured approximately 80 of the market for tiles. They are machine pressed, manufactured in a wide range of traditional and modern profiles and colours, and can be sand finished, smooth finished, or through coloured. The majority are formed with interlocking edges, although some, such as plain tiles, are not.
There being little domestic construction in the 1920s. This was followed by a period of greater activity until 1939 in both the public and private sectors. Pitched roofs were still of traditional 'cut' construction but the quality, although generally good, was usually lower than the peak reached just before the First World War. The Second World War and the years immediately after was a period of little building activity except for some types of system building (refer to Chapter 15). Between 1945 and 1954 timber was subject to rationing and this led to the extending or stretching of the centres of rafters and trusses in order to save materials. The majority of low-rise domestic pitched roofs are of timber construction. However, since the Second World War some use has been made of pre-cast reinforced concrete members and steel members although these are often found to be installed as supports to what is essentially a timber roof (eg reinforced concrete trusses and purlins supporting...
According to the Urban Land Institute, suburban developments after World War II continued using the grid pattern of streets the design that was predominant and is still evident in America's older cities and towns. After the 1960s, however, most developments favored curvilinear street patterns, which essentially follow a hierarchy of streets from major arteries out to secondary streets that end in cul-de-sacs.
Not all defects are as dramatic as these. Temple Church (in Bristol) was started in 1398. The tower soon leant because the alluvial soil was too weak to support the heavy load of the tower. The upper stage (built at a different angle in an attempt to straighten it) was built in 1460. According to local history the Americans, stationed in Bristol at the end of the Second World War, intended to demolish the tower, incorrectly assuming the lean was a result of bomb damage.
Although there are examples of concrete ground bearing floors from the1930s, and even before, it was not until after the Second World War that they became the most common method of forming ground floors. This was, in the main, due to a shortage of timber caused by government restrictions on imports (eventually relaxed in the mid 1950s). Nowadays, although timber floors can be found, concrete ground bearing slabs are much more common.
The use of asbestos products has been closely controlled for many years. However, there are still many houses where asbestos boarding has been used to dryline walls or finish ceilings. It was a very common material in the post Second World War reconstruction of Britain, particularly in non-traditional housing. Some grades of plasterboard were suitable for painting, others received a plaster finish. Where asbestos boarding is suspected specialist advice is necessary.
Although not significant as a percentage of total houses built, there were a number of timber-frame houses constructed in the period between the two World Wars. Many of these were constructed from timber studwork although some were constructed from what were effectively solid timber walls, usually clad on the outside with timber boarding. Following the Second World War the increasing interest in industrialised systems revitalised timber-frame systems. Apart from the reasons for embracing system building that have already been
Mineral felt has been in use as a flat roof covering (and, occasionally, as a gutter lining) since before the Second World War. It became very popular in the 1960s and 1970s. This was because of its relative cheapness and ease of installation. It has since declined in popularity, because of its apparent lack of durability. In the 1960s and 70s, the life expectancy of mineral felt roofing was thought to be 15-25 years, but it rarely achieved this, often suffering failure in less than 10 years. This was due to a mixture of poor installation and inadequate material content (eg a core of rag fibres, asbestos fibres or glass fibres coated with oxidised bitumen).
The report should indicate potential as well as existing problems the inspector can readily observe. For example, the original wiring in a home built before World War II is probably not up to handling today's major electrical appliances. An inspector should note such a shortcoming and give you some idea of what would be involved in bringing the feature up to modern standards.
These were introduced just after the Second World War. They became very popular, particularly on solid floors (timber was rationed after the war and the amount of timber used in a house was limited - hence the concrete ground floor). The tiles were made from thermoplastic resin binders, mineral fillers, pigments and sometimes asbestos. In the mid 1950s vinyl tiles became available and these slowly overtook thermoplastic tiles in popularity. Their advantage lay in increased flexibility and in an improved range of colours. Both types of tile were normally laid in a solvent bitumen adhesive on a screed or trowelled slab.
At the end of the Second World War, the Government introduced a temporary housing programme in an attempt to meet immediate emergency housing needs. This involved the erection between 1945 and 1948 of temporary dwellings, nicknamed 'pre-fabs', with only a very short designed life span of 10 years. These buildings, of which some 157,000 were constructed, including 32,000 in Scotland, performed better than expected and, although most have subsequently been demolished, there are several thousand still in use. Bristol City Council, which has a policy of maintaining and improving its 'pre-fab' stock, has the largest overall number (800), whilst many other local authorities still have
The use of plasterboard first became common in the 1930s when it slowly but steadily replaced plaster and timber lath in ceiling construction. It was also used extensively during the Second World War to help patch bomb damaged buildings. Since then, its popularity has grown steadily and in modern buildings it is also used to line internal walls and in partition systems.
Accompanied by a very slight expansion. The plaster sets by combining with water to form a mass of needle-like crystals which interlock and provide a set material of considerable strength. Because of their fast set, gypsum plasters can be successfully laid on a wall in thicker coats than lime plaster two coat work (float and set) is normal with an overall thickness of about 13mm. Its fast set and reduced number of coats made it an obvious choice in the post-war re-construction of Britain. A typical float coat would contain 3 parts sand to 1 part gypsum (batched on site) and the set or finish coat would be neat gypsum plaster, possibly with the addition of some lime to improve its working characteristics. Another advantage of gypsum plaster is that it can be applied to plasterboard, a material which first became popular during the Second World War where it was extensively used to help patch up bomb damage.
Ceilings may fail quickly if a fire starts. Early construction does not necessarily require renewal although it should be recognised that the performance of a pre Second World War floor may be less than satisfactory if a fire breaks out. The risks are more significant where properties have been converted into flats. In these cases the performance requirements of the floor are much more onerous the higher the building the greater the level of performance required. The purpose of the Building Regulations is not to make the floor non-combustible but to provide a reasonably 'safe time' to ensure that occupants can escape. In converted buildings there may be some 'trade-off' in standards of fire protection depending on the level of fire alarm equipment and emergency lighting.
The aftermath of the First World War saw an urgent need for thousands of houses. The immediate reasons for this were a lack of any new construction and maintenance during the war years combined with the need to house large numbers of demobilised soldiers and their families. Post-war shortages of materials, such as bricks and timber, and labour, in particular, skilled labour (as the result of war The Second World War resulted in similar shortages of building materials and skilled labour. The situation was exacerbated by the loss of some 200,000 houses due to bombing, as well as damage to about 25 of the entire building stock. An increasing population (the post-war 'baby boom') caused further pressures.
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