Easy Woodworking Project Plans

Ted's Woodworking Plans

Teds Woodworking guide contains a complete variety of woodworking plans that are basically a model for other similar plans and such blueprints help the craftsmen to build near excellent furniture projects. This book is here to guide you in every possible way so that so successfully shift from an amateur to a successful professional soon. The book also contains pictorial diagrams for you to highlight the length and width of several woodworking plans so that you have a clear idea of making the product. The book will also tell you ways to beautify your products, so that they attract to the people and especially to the customers.It is because of the hard work done by the book in highlighting every tip and trick in detail that the person who uses this book and follows the guidelines ends up becoming a professional woodworker. Read more here...

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Plywood Sheet Goods

Tiger Attacks Human

There are many different types of sheet goods, but plywood is the most widely used. Plywood is an extremely versatile sheet material that is made up of thinly sliced layers or plies of wood. Plywood is available in thicknesses ranging from '. 'to V and is graded A through D. depending on the quality of the wood in its outer plies. It is also graded for interior cr exterior usage. Classifications for plywood are based on the wood species used for the face and back veneers. Group 1 species are the strongest and stiffest. Group 2 is the next strongest Finish plywood s graded either A-C. meaning it has a finish-quality wood veneer on one side and a utility-grade ply on the other side, or A-A. indicating it has a finish veneer on both sides Sheathing plywood is graded C-D with two rough sides. and features a bond between plies that is waterproof Plywood rated EXPOSURE 1 is for use where some moisture is present, and plywood rated EXTERIOR is used in applications that are permanently...

Hardwood floor

Hardwood floors can dramatically change the look of a room but, like all good things, they come with a price. These days, good hardwood floors can range anywhere from 10 to 300 per square foot, (although some can go as low as 5). With such a hefty price tag, it's worth having some information in your back pocket to help. Before you make the trek to a hardwood-floor retailer, pick a colour that will work with your decor. While it's possible to put hardwood floors into bathrooms and kitchens, experts do not suggest putting hardwood near water sources because the wood will expand and contract too much. Where do you want the hardwood floor asked Dan Glavind, director of sales and marketing for BC Hardwood Floor Ltd. Different structures or different heating systems will mean different options they have in their hardwood. If they have radiant-heated floor, the preferred option is to go to engineered hardwood.' Homeowners considering hardwood should be sure they get the wood from the right...

Winner And Finalist Of 31 Georgie Awards In 10 Years

This old Kitsilano kitchen was remade using three different cabinets - white, maple and black glass - and black-granite countertops that somehow blend together in harmony. The portable island, also in black granite, can be moved to change space as needed. An exposed Parallam beam anchors the high corridors, providing the perception of depth and texture that is carried through with the hardwood flooring.

Floors Walls And Ceilings

Simply painting a concrete floor with a paint made specifically for the purpose will keep down the dust and make the surface easier to clean. Adhesive vinyl floor tile can be laid down as well. Yet many woodworkers prefer the comfort of a raised wooden floor. A simple floor can be constructed from sheets of 3A-inch plywood laid atop a grid of 1-by-2s on 12-inch centers. Not only is this type of floor easier on the feet, but wiring for stationary power tools can be routed underneath the raised surface in V2-inch plastic or steel conduit. If part of your shop has a raised floor, you can make a smooth transition from the lower concrete floor with several beveled 2-by-6s laid end-to-end. Cut a rabbet in one edge of each 2-by-6 to accommodate the plywood floor and the 1-by-2 grid underneath. Then bevel the opposite edge, forming a ramp to facilitate moving items from one floor to the other. Nail or screw the plywood to the 2-by-6s.

Organizing circular saw blades

Keep your circular saw blades visible and protected in a custom-made storage box like the one above. Build the box from Vk-inch plywood, cutting it a few inches larger than your largest blade and wide enough to hold all your blades. Make the dividers out of lA-inch plywood first cut rectangles 1 inch less than the size of the sides, then saw them in half diagonally. Screw the frame together, then glue and nail the dividers to the bottom and back. Leave Va inch between the dividers. To keep the blades from rolling out of the box, cut a batten from scrap stock and nail it to the dividers near the bottom of the box.

Th and early 19th centuries middle class housing most working class housing from these periods has long since been

Internal walls Half brick or stud partitions covered with lath, lime plaster or, possibly, wood panels. Softwood or hardwood panel doors. By the beginning of the 18th century trade with the Baltic was well established and most houses used substantial amounts of softwood in their construction - floor joists, rafters, etc. Some imported hardwoods, notably mahogany were also used for doors and other items of joinery.

Bench Dogs And Hold Downs

Tail Vise Wood

Bench dogs are as important as vises in maximizing the flexibility and utility of a well-designed workbench. A set of bench dogs works like a second pair of hands to secure workpieces for planing, chiseling, mortising, carving, or other woodworking tasks. Bench dogs can be either round or square. Round dogs are easier to incorporate in a bench that does not yet have dog holes it is simpler to bore holes than to make square dog holes. Since round dogs can swivel, their notched, flat heads enable them to clamp stock in practically any direction. This can be a disadvantage Some woodworkers claim that round dogs tend to slip in their holes more than square dogs, which cannot rotate. Bench dogs can be made of either metal or wood. Metal dogs have a weight, strength, and stiffness that wooden ones cannot match. Yet wooden dogs have their advantages as any woodworker who has nicked a plane blade on a metal dog will attest.

Materials And Sources

Cabinetry Eastvold Custom Woodworks, Millwork Skyblend, Certified Wood Products, Dan Haugen, certifiedwood.net Paints and finishes Pure Performance, Zero VOC, PPG, corporateportal.ppg.com ppg Pavers VAST Enterprises, vastpavers.com Photovoltaics and solar domestic hot water Westwood Renewables, westwoodrenewables.com Spruce Line 195W, Outback inverter and batteries, Evergreen Solar Panels, evergreensolar.com Solar hot water Solar Skies flat plate collectors, solarskies.com Rheem Soleraide HE tank, rheem.com Caleffi pump, Caleffi Hydronic Solutions, caleffi.us Plumbing and water systems Astracast, astracast.co.uk Toto, totousa.com Grohe, grohe.com Roofing Fully adhered membrane roofing, Firestone UltraPly TPO, firestonebpco.com roofing tpo ultraplytpo

Heating And Ventilation

Out Door Wall Air Intake Vents

Heating is a necessity for most shops in North America. Some woodworking tasks demand it gluing and finishing in particular require steady temperatures. Heating your shop also makes it more comfortable and safe numb fingers invite accidents. If your shop is some distance from your home's furnace, a separate heating system will be needed. Many woodworkers swear by wood heat it has the added benefit of consuming scrap pieces. Yet this means frequently feeding the stove and cleaning the chimney insuring your shop against fire can also be a problem. Electric baseboard units are more convenient, but can contribute to high utility bills and frequently are clogged with sawdust.

Building a handsaw storage rack

Hand Saw Handle

Build a wall-mounted rack for handsaws with a few wood scraps, doweling, and some rubber hose. Cut the base from Vb-inch plywood and the dividers from 4-by-4 stock the dividers should be 10 inches long. Cut a taper at the end of each 4-by-4, as shown at right. Screw a 2-by-4 along one edge of the base, then screw the dividers in place, leaving a Vfe-inch gap between them. The stoppers are cut from 4-inch lengths of Vfe-inch dowel and slightly larger rubber hose use hose with ridges rather than smooth garden hose. Slip a saw into the rack from below, then tug down on the handle. The stopper will pinch the blade in place. Mark the dowel's position and screw it to the base.

Reinforcing Knockdown Joinery

Folding Legs Bracket Workbench

Instead of using mortise-and-tenon joints to build the base, use butt joints reinforced by truss rods, as shown at right. Available in kits, the rods can be loosened or tightened after assembly to compensate for wood movement as a result of changes in humidity. Rout grooves for the rods into the edges of the stretchers and the inside edges of the legs the depth and width of the channels should equal the rod's diameter. Test-assemble the base and mark the groove locations on the legs and arms. Then bore a hole at each mark, making the diameter equal to that of the rods countersink the holes so you can drive the nuts flush with the wood surface. Assemble the base, fitting the rods into the grooves and holes, and tightening the connections with washers and nuts. Cover the grooves with solid wood inlay if you wish to conceal the rods. Butt joints connecting the legs of a workbench to the stretchers can be reinforced with hardwood knockdown fittings. The fittings are inserted into mortises...

Installing A Tail Vise

Fit the sliding dog block in the bench so the hardwood keys in the block run in the grooves in the sides of the rail. Thread the vise screw through the vise collar, test-fit the end cap on the bench-top and lock the ball joint on the end of the screw into the vise flange. Set the front apron in position against the dog blocks (left) and test the movement of the vise by turning the screw. If the sliding block binds, remove the end cap, apron, and sliding dog block, and ease the fit by paring the keys with a chisel. Once you are satisfied with the vise's movement, attach the aprons, end caps, and trays following the procedures outlined on page 55.

Expanding a dust collectors capacity

You can more than double the capacity of your portable dust collector or shop vacuum by attaching a 55-gallon drum or a large plastic barrel as a mid-stage collector. Install plastic intake and exhaust ports on the drum as shown at left and mount a hose to the intake port on the drum to collect wood dust and chips. The 90 elbow on the intake port will create a cyclone effect inside the barrel, forcing chips and heavier sawdust against the walls of the barrel. Lighter dust will be drawn through the exhaust port into the shop vacuum or dust collector. For easy assembly and disassembly, use pipe fittings that form a friction fit with the hose from your vacuum or collector.

Building a Straightedge Guide

Making straight and accurate rip cuts or cutting long sheets of plywood or paneling is a challenge. Even the best carpenter can't always keep the blade on the cutline. especially over a longer span A straightedge guide or jig solves the problem. As long as you keep the saw's baseplate flush with the edge of the cleat as you make the cut. you're assured of a straight cut on your workpiece. 1 Apply carpenter's glue to the bottom of the YS plywood cteat, then position the cleat on the ' pjywocd t ase. 2' from one edge. Clamp the pieces together until the glue dries 2 Position the circular saw with as foot tight against the S' plywood cleat Cut away the excess portion ol the plywood base w th a single pass of the saw to create a square edge.

Setting up a temporary work surface

Above is inexpensive and easy to put together, yet it provides a large and stable work surface that can be set up and disassembled quickly. Start by fitting the sawhorses with crosspieces cut from 2-by-6 stock, then cut the 2-by-4s to the same length as the panel. In three of the boards, cut a notch about 8 inches from each end the notches should be about 2 inches deep and as wide as the thickness of the crosspieces. Cut matching notches in the top edges of the crosspieces. Center the unnotched edge of the notched boards along the face of the other 2-by-4s and screw them together to form three T-shaped tabletop supports. The sawhorse supports can be used to hold a large sheet of plywood for ripping, or a permanent top can be screwed to the 2-by-4s. Tables consisting of plywood panels laid acroee two sawhorses are a cinch to set up, but they tend to slide and twist. Attaching cleats to the underside of the panel on either side of the sawhorses' crosspieces helps to stabilize these...

How to Change a Table Saw Blade

Table Saw Turning

2 Wearing gloves, hold the biade stationary with a piece of scrap wood Loosen and remove the arbor nut by turning it clockwise. (An arbor wrench is supplied with most saws). Use a straddlestick for added safety when cutt ng boards. A straddiest ck is a pushstick that fits over the top of the rip fence Straddlesticks and push-sticks can be made with a piece of plywood, or purchased at woodworking stores or home centers Use a straddlestick for added safety when cutt ng boards. A straddiest ck is a pushstick that fits over the top of the rip fence Straddlesticks and push-sticks can be made with a piece of plywood, or purchased at woodworking stores or home centers

Making a wooden bench dog

Bench dogs can be crafted from hardwood stock the one shown at left uses an angled wooden tongue as a spring. Cut the dog to fit the holes in your workbench, then chisel out a dado from the middle of the dog. Saw a short kerf Into the lower corner of the dado, angling the cut so the tongue will extend beyond the edge of the dado. Cut the tongue from hardwood, making it about as long as the dado, as wide as the dog, and as thick as the kerf. Glue the tongue in the kerf.

How to Select the Proper Sandpaper for the

Use 60-grft coarse sandpaper on hardwood flooring and to grind down badly scratched surfaces. Move sander across the gram for quickest removal. Use 60-grft coarse sandpaper on hardwood flooring and to grind down badly scratched surfaces. Move sander across the gram for quickest removal. Use 150-grit fine sandpaper to put a smooth finish on wood surfaces. Use fine sandpaper to prepare wood surfaces for staining or to smooth waliboard joints. Use 150-grit fine sandpaper to put a smooth finish on wood surfaces. Use fine sandpaper to prepare wood surfaces for staining or to smooth waliboard joints.

Making and mounting a removable router table

Removable Router

Attached to a workbench or table, the extension table shown above serves as a compact router table that can be stored when it is not needed. Size the parts according to your needs. Start by cutting the top from -inch plywood, and the rails and braces from 2-by-4 stock. Saw the rails 6 inches longer than the width of the top so they extend under the top and can be fastened to the underside of the bench using nuts and hanger bolts. The hinged braces should be long enough to reach from the underside of the rails to a leg rail on the bench. Cut a bevel at the top end of the braces and an angled notch at the bottom end. The router is attached to the top with a square sub-base made of Vi-inch clear acrylic. Several steps are necessary to fit the base to the tabletop and then to the router. First, lay the square sub-base in the center of the table, clamp it in place, and mark its edges with a pencil. Mark the center of the subbase and drill a pilot hole completely through the base and the...

Setting up a shopmade sanding station

To reduce the amount of dust generated by power sanding, build a portable stall that fits on a table or workbench. Cut the back, top, and sides from or -inch plywood. Taper the top edges of the sides to create a comfortable, open working space, like the one shown above. Cut an outlet in the back of the station for a dust collection hose or branch duct. Assemble the station with screws. Position the sanding station securely on your work surface attach the collector hose to the outlet. Turn on the collector before you begin a sanding operation.

Installing A Face Vise

Cut an 18-inch-long -by-3V2 inch hardwood support block and screw it in place under the front left corner of the bench, after boring a row of clearance holes for the bench dogs. Next, build up the face block by gluing two pieces of hardwood together cut it to a final size of 5-by-18 inches. To mark and bore the holes for the vise screw and guide rods, mark a line across the face of the face block offset the line from the top edge by the thickness of the benchtop slab (not the front apron depth). Now use the carriage as a template Center its top edge on the line and use a brad-point bit to accurately mark the position of the three holes (right) and bore them.

Essential conditions for wood decay

FOOD Susceptibility to fungal decay varies between the different species of timber. In general, the sapwood will be attacked because it contains the food, although in certain timbers such as beech, birch and spruce the heartwood is equally susceptible. Modern construction tends to use timber from relatively young trees which therefore tend to have a high proportion of sapwood.

Tool Stands And Tables

Held upside down in a commercial table, a router becomes a stationary tool. Here, it is cutting a groove for a sliding dovetail joint. Many woodworkers consider the router table to be the single most important accessory you can add to your tool. Because of its central role in woodworking, the router merits a dedicated table in most shops. The shop-built benchtop version illustrated on page 139 allows you to take advantage of this tools great versatility.

Vacuum screening ramp

For cleaning dust off the shop floor, build a wedge-shaped screening ramp from 2-Inch plywood. Before assembling the pieces, cut an inlet port in the back to fit a dust collection hose and five rows of 2-inch-diameter holes through the top. When dust and chips are swept up onto the ramp, smaller particles will fall through the holes and continue on to the collector. Larger refuse will remain on the ramp for easy disposal.

Parts List Understairs Work Center

Ft* plywood ft' plywood plywood ft' plywood ft' plywood ft' plywood ri plywood a* plywood ft' plywood Shelves and cleats, made from plywood and i x 2 strips, are beveled so they fit flush against the understairs cover. The shelf edging strips are cut from oak t x 2. and mitered at the same angle as the shelves. The side panels for the short cabinet (left), made from plywood, differ in size A line connecting the tops of the two panels should follow the slope Ime of the staircase. The side panels for the ma n cabinets (right), are also made from 5' plywood, and have dadoes for the cabinet shelves and base, and rabbets for the cabinet top The taller side panel for the small cabmet fits against a mam cabinet side panel when the work center is installed Cover stair underside before you install your understairs work center Panels of 1' ' plywood attached to the stringers of the staircase create an understairs cover that can be used to anchor she f cleats If you plan to add electrical or...

Fitting a drill press with an extension table

The small table typical of most drill presses will not adequately support many large workpieces. A customized extension table for the tool will enable you to keep a workpiece level as you feed it into an accessory like a sanding drum (above). Start by cutting a piece of 3A-inch plywood into a square with dimensions that suit your needs. Then mark a line down the middle of the piece and draw two circles centered on the line. Locate one about 4 inches from the back edge, sizing it to fit snugly around the drill press column. Locate the second hole under the chuck make Its diameter about V2 Inch greater than the largest accessory you plan to insert into the chuck. To help you pinpoint the center of hole,

Jigs For Ironjawed Bench Vises

If you are reluctant to bolt your bench vise onto your workbench, attach it instead to a T-shaped base made of 3A-inch plywood. Join the two pieces of the base together with a dado joint and screws. Secure the vertical part of the base In either the tail or face vise of the bench, When securing a workpiece at one end of a face vise, the other end of the vise is likely to rack or tilt toward the bench and cause the work to slip. To prevent racking, use a stepped hardwood block to keep the jaws square. Cut a series of steps in one face of the block, spacing them at equal intervals, such as V2 inch. Place the block in the open end of the vise at the same time you are securing the workpiece so that the vise is parallel to the edge of the bench (left).

Conditions favourable to insect attack

As the insects are seeking food as well as shelter they will mainly attack sapwood but they may move around any part of the timber whilst seeking food supplements such as starch or proteins. A much quoted example is the way in which older plywood is readily attacked by the common furniture beetle because it was bonded with animal glue, whereas modern plywoods are rarely attacked. Sapwood of softwoods European hardwoods Limited number of European hardwoods Sapwood of softwoods Sapwood of coarse-pored hardwoods Sapwood and heartwood of decayed hardwoods, occasionally softwoods

Building a knockdown sawhorse

Pvc Bird Feeder

With only a small amount of lumber and plywood and a few minutes' time, you can make a sturdy, knock-down sawhorse like the one shown above. Cut the legs from 3 4-inch plywood, then saw a 3-inch-deep notch in the middle of the top of both pieces. Next, cut the crosspiece from l-by-6 stock and saw a 1 -inch-deep slot 8 inches in from either end to fit into the legs. Angle the slots roughly 5 from the vertical so the legs spread slightly outward. For added stability, screw 4-inch-long l-by-2 cleats to the crosspiece on each side of the slots. If you want to stack your sawhorses, instead of the type of braces seen on page 11S , make plywood braces like those shown at right. Cut a notch In each brace so it will mesh with the crosspiece of the sawhorse beneath It. To prevent the stack from toppling over, be sure the fit Is snug by leaving only a small amount of clearance in the notches.

Selecting Maintaining Circular Saw Blades

To get full use out of your circular saw. you'll need an assortment of blades. Your collection should include at least one carbide-tipped combination blade and a panel blade for cutting plywood Buy additional blades based on the type of cutting you plan to do A panel blade has small teeth designed to cut through plywood and other veneer panels without chipping them A hollow-ground planer blade has a tapered surface that reduces friction for smoother cuts in fine woodworking.

Grooveandtenon Details

Feel free to customize the look and functionality of the coatrack frames. Options include photographs and chalkboard (photo opposite page), corkboard, or simply the plywood frame backs as attractive wood fillers (photos at left). To make your own chalkboard, spray W hardboard with Rust-Oleum Painter's Touch Chalk Board Finish, available at home centers. 6 x 9 V F.H. wood screw Vb x 51 8 x 7Va glass 6 x s s F.H. wood screw 6 x s s F.H. wood screw 6 x 9 V F.H. wood screw Vb x 51 8 x 7Va glass

The Value Of A Workbench

The humanizing part comes from surrounding yourself with things you like. I like everything about woodworking. My office is filled with old tools as well as books about their history and use. To add a workbench to the general clutter is iust another layer to the cocoon. The world looks much better when viewed from an office with a workbench in it. Leonard Lee is thepresident of Veritas Tools and Lee Valley Tools in Ottawa, Canada, manufacturers and retailers of fnewoodworking hand tools. He is also thepublisher and executive editor of Woodcuts, a magazine thatfocuses on the history and techniques cf woodworking.

Recessedbottom Cabinets

Our kitchen cabinets had a flat bottom for mounting the trays. A cabinet with a face frame, however, will have anywhere from a V2 to 1 recess underneath (Illustration, right). You'll need to fill this recess before mounting the tray. To do this, screw a plywood filler pad into the base of the cabinet. Note You may need to add spacers to make it fit flush with the bottom of the face frame.

Parade Of Renovated Tomes

My House Design Build Ltd., 604-694-6873 This Panorama Ridge '70s home received a complete main floor makeover. The gorgeous Lindal sunroom addition creates a kitchen great room outdoor entertaining space anchored by a large island. Creative relocation of the staircase permitted a large, skylit entry foyer. The master suite now features a spa-like skylit shower, stunning tiles, quartz countertops and custom cabinetry. A little-used formal living room was reinvented as a home theatre. Wideplank hardwood floors, tasteful tones and multiple subtle details are capped off by a new roof, windows and doors.

Parade Of Renovated Homes

On the main floor, bathrooms were upgraded and carpets replaced by hardwood flooring. Walls adjacent to the kitchen were removed and a skylight was added to provide an open airy atmosphere. Shaker-style cabinets were capped with Quartz countertops in ash white, and a stylish designer faucet and a polished silver heritage-style chandelier were installed as crowning features. In-floor heat warms the kitchen floor while a refinished fireplace heats the living room.

Fulllength Filler Strip

Left From your matched piece of scrap plywood, rip a filler strip with your tablesaw blade set at 2 from vertical. Right First, apply glue to the filler strip and groove. Then tap the filler strip into place with a flat hardwood block and hammer. Secure the board in a woodworking vise, and pare away the dented corner with the chisel positioned at 45 to the edge. Secure the board in a woodworking vise, and pare away the dented corner with the chisel positioned at 45 to the edge.

Fireplaces and woodburning stoves

The cost-effectiveness of a wood-burning stove for heating will depend on the cost of the wood being burned. In those areas where wood is inexpensive, a stove is an economically viable method for providing auxiliary heat and reducing your overall heating bill. Even in those areas where wood is more costly, as utility rates increase, the use of a wood-burning stove becomes more attractive. Different woods have different burning characteristics. For example, wood from conifer trees (softwood) such as pine, spruce, and fir burns more quickly and gives less heat than wood from deciduous trees (hardwood) such as maple, oak, and beech. To aid you in making a proper selection for your fireplace or stove, TABLE 19-2, prepared by the Maine Bureau of Forestry, shows the various characteristics of wood.

Supporting a folddown work surface on sawhorses

Rather than building a framework for a fold-down work surface, you can use a panel of 3 4-inch plywood hinged to the wall and supported by sawhorses. The surface can be of any size. Begin by setting the panel on two sawhorses one edge of the panel should be flush against the wall. Mark a point on the panel at every wall stud, then install butt hinges, screwing one leaf of each hinge to a stud and the other leaf to the panel at a pencil mark. To secure the panel when it is folded up, screw a notched piece of 2-by-4 to the stud closest to the middle of the panel at a height that will allow the notched end to slip over the edge of the panel (inset).

Outfitting a table saw with a folddown outfeed table

A handy extension to your saw table for cutting long stock, the shop-made jig shown above swings down out of the way when it is not needed. Start by cutting the top, sides, and support brackets from X-inch plywood, sizing the pieces to suit your needs. Then saw the braces and cleat from l-by-2 stock, adding an angled notch at the bottom end of both braces. Screw the sides to the top, countersinking the fasteners. Next, get ready to attach the jig to the saw housing. First, attach an angle iron to each side of both support brackets. Then, have a helper hold the top against the saw table, making sure the two surfaces are level leave a slight gap between the top and saw table so the jig will fold down without jamming against the table. Now determine the position of the support brackets by butting each against the inside face of a side piece. Mark the holes in the angle irons on the saw housing. Drill a hole for a machine screw at each mark and fasten the angle irons to the housing....

Making and using a temporary bench stop

A clamped-on bench stop cut from inch plywood will secure a workpiece to the benchtop without the help of bench dogs. Cut the bench stop to size, then mark out a triangular wedge, typically 3 inches shorter than the stop. Cut out the wedge and set it aside. To use the bench stop, clamp it to the benchtop and slide the workpiece into the notch, butting one side against the straight edge of the notch Secure the piece with the wedge, tapping it tightly in place with a mallet (left).

Installing portable cabinets

The box at right can be hung securely on a shop wall and easily moved If necessary. Build it from -inch plywood with a hinged top. To hang the cabinet on the wall, cut a 45 angle bevel down the middle of a l-by-6, then crosscut the two pieces slightly less than the width of the box. Screw one of the pieces to the wall as a batten, with the bevel pointing up and facing the wall anchor as many of the fasteners as possible in wall studs. Screw the other piece to the back of the box with its flat edge butting against the lip and the bevel pointing down and facing the back. The two pieces Interlock when the box Is hung on the wall (inset).

Building a low assembly table

For operations that are awkward to perform on a standard-height table, use an assembly table like the one shown at left. Ideal for jobs like gluing up carcases, the table can be built easily in the shop with a small amount of wood. Refer to the dimensions in the illustration for a work surface that is about 12 inches lower than a standard table. Saw the legs from 4-by-4 stock and the rails and braces from 2-by-4s cut miters at the ends of the braces so they butt against the legs and sit flush with the top of the rails. Screw the rails to the legs, then fasten the braces to the legs and rails (inset). Next, saw the tabletop from Winch plywood it will overhang the rails by about 3 inches on all sides. Screw the top to the rails, countersinking the fasteners. Cut a replaceable cover from Winch hardboard and nail it to the tabletop set the nail heads below the surface of the cover.

Assembling The Benchtop

Building Tail Vise

Before gluing up the benchtop, rout grooves on both sides of the dog blocks and front rail, on one face of the front apron and back rail, and along the edges and ends of the top slab. Cut matching keys and splines. Refer to the drawing on page 53 for the size and placement of the grooves, keys, and splines. If you want to incorporate a tool tray in your bench, cut Vfe-inch rabbets into the bottom edges of the back rail and apron later in the assembly process you will fit a piece of Vfe-inch plywood to form the tray. Set aside the sliding dog block (with the hardwood keys glued in place) and front and back aprons, spread glue on all mating surfaces, and clamp (right), alternating the bar or pipe clamps on the top and bottom of the work. The end caps can be applied while the tail vise is being installed (page 57). When that is done, invert the benchtop and rout a T-shaped recess at each end, centered between the edges. Cut two rectangular fittings from scrap...

Adapting drawers to hold small items

Jar Squirrel Feeder Plans

The addition of some simple trays can make drawers much more efficient storage units, especially for small items like screws and washers, which can be easily lost. The jar organizer shown above keeps different-sized jars in order. The shelf raises the smaller jars to make them more accessible. Begin by collecting the jars Find some larger ones nearly the same height as the drawer and some smaller ones about half that height. Make the divider by trimming a piece of Vinnch plywood to fit inside the drawer. Lay out the jars on the plywood and mark their positions. Use a hole saw to cut holes for the jars slightly larger than their actual diameters. Hold the divider and the shelf in place with a pair of plywood supports (above). Another useful drawer organizer is the sliding tray (inset). The tray is a basic box that fits inside the drawer. The dividers are notched together and then secured with finishing nails. Attach a pair of slides to the drawer sides to support the tray.

Removing Doors Windows

If wall openings cannot be filled mm* lately, protect your home by covering the openings with scrap pieces of plywood screwed to the framing members Ptastic sheet-.ng stapled to the outside of the openings will prevent moisture damage If wall openings cannot be filled mm* lately, protect your home by covering the openings with scrap pieces of plywood screwed to the framing members Ptastic sheet-.ng stapled to the outside of the openings will prevent moisture damage Materials Plywood shoets. masking tape.

Installing Tongueandgroove Wainscoting

Typical tongue-and-groove boards for wainscoting are made of pine, fir. or other softwoods and measure V. to YS thick Each board has a tongue on one edge, a groove on the other, and usually a decorative bevel or bead on each edge Boards are cut to length, then attached with nails, most of which are driven through the tongues of the boards This technique, known as blindnailing (page 77). hides the nails from view.

How to Select the Right Materials for a Project

Easy to cut. holds paint we Heart-wood resists decay Lightweight, soft wood with a tendency to shrink. Holds nails wei Some varieties resist decay Redwood Lightweight, soft wood that holds parntwei Easy to cut Heartwood resists decay and msect damage Hardwood Painted cabinets, trim, and plywood Painted cab-nets trim, tongue-and-groove panoi-ng and plywood cores Fine woodwork, paneling, and mantelpieces

Identification of wet rot

A common wet rot is cellar rot (Coniophora Puteana). It is a brown rot which attacks both hardwoods and softwoods. The wood becomes darker and suffers from cuboidal cracking. The fruiting body is thin and flat and is olive coloured. The fruiting body is rarely found in buildings. The strands are yellowish coloured during their early development but become darker with age. This fungus is, according to the BRE, indistinguishable from Coniophora Marmorata unless the fruit body is present.

House longhorn beetle

House longhorn beetles attack mainly the sapwood of softwood and are an important insect because of the relatively severe damage which can be caused in a short period of time. They are also interesting in that they are only common in certain geographical areas around London and the Home Counties. The reason that they are only found in this area is thought to be connected with climate. This locational factor is acknowledged by the Building Regulations which stipulate that buildings in the prescribed areas should be treated against infestation. The Building Research Establishment asks that suspected outbreaks should be reported to them in order that records of the spread of the attacks can be kept.

Dampness and moisture content

The damp air, and, as it does so, its moisture content will also rise. If the air below the floor has a relative humidity of 85 or more, (see Chapter 13 for a definition of relative humidity), the timber's moisture content will rise to a point where biological decay is likely in most untreated softwoods this is about 20 .

Common furniture beetle

This has the Latin name Anobium Punctatum and is the most common form of insect to attack timber in this country. Despite its English name it does not attack just furniture (although it is often brought into a building by furniture which has been infested) and it will attack softwoods and hardwoods in many situations, from a damp underfloor area to the roof. The beetle attacks mainly sapwood, heart-wood is only usually attacked where it has suffered from fungal decay. If the sapwood is only a small part of the timber section, as it will tend to be in older buildings (with original timbers) then the amount of damage caused by this insect may be relatively small.

And 40 years oldand 100 years old

Sapwood is that part of the tree that carries nutrients from the ground to the branches and leaves and, in the other direction, the products of photosynthesis from the leaves to the roots. Sapwood is susceptible to decay because it is carrying the nutrients that timber pests feed on. The physical nature of the cells is also a factor in durability. For example the water nutrient carrying cells in softwoods, known as tracheids, have walls which become thicker and more rigid as growth progresses. As a tree ages the older cells die. The portion of the trunk that consists of these dead cells is known as heartwood. Obviously, with age, the proportion of heartwood to sapwood increases. The proportion of sapwood to heartwood will also vary between tree species. Heartwood is in effect dead sapwood it does not carry nutrients but it functions as a depository for waste matter and as a skeletal support to the trunk. The heartwood can often be distinguished from sapwood because of a distinct...

Positivestop Sanding

Sliding table with threaded inserts to attach stops, toggles, and hold-downs, wood screw From time to time, you've undoubtedly heard other woodworkers say, It really wouldn't take me much longer to build six of these than it would just one. To a large extent, that's true. Once you're set up to machine, drill, sand, and finish, for example, doing multiples goes pretty quickly. 8 x 2 F.H. wood screws

Layout Of A Large Shop

Shop boasts three separate work surfaces one in the finishing room, one for glue-up near the drill press, and a workbench beside the table saw. A shop of this size would need an independent electrical service panel to power all the tools. To keep the wiring out of the way, half the floor is covered with a raised -inch plywood floor as shown on page 44, an understructure of l-by-2s is laid on the concrete floor on 12-inch centers and the plywood is nailed to the boards. Wires are run in conduits under the plywood between the l-by-2s.

History Of Modern Timberframed Housing In The Uk

In the post-war period most timber-framed housing was largely based on timber stud walls which were covered with a variety of claddings including timber, plywood, brick and asbestos cement sheets. Until the mid-1960s external cladding was often fixed directly to the studs. Some of the systems were thermally insulated but not to very high levels. A breather member was normally incorporated between the cladding and the studs although vapour checks were not normally included (foil-backed plasterboard was used from the mid-1960s). Some houses had an external cladding of 100mm brickwork a cavity separated the brick and timber studding.

Building a benchtop tool stand

The stand shown at right is constructed from 4-by-4 and 2-by-4 lumber and plywood. Saw the legs from 4-by-4s and the rails from 2-by-4s, sizing the pieces to suit your needs. Notch the legs at the top and 6 inches down from the top to fit the rails, then cut matching rabbets at the ends of all the rails (inset). Glue up the legs and rails, adding countersunk screws to reinforce the joints. Cut the top from Winch plywood. If you plan to place a table saw on the stand, saw a square hole out of the center of the top as shown to allow sawdust to fall through place a box underneath to catch the waste. Finally, screw the top to the legs and rails, again countersinking the fasteners. When using a tool on the stand, secure it to the top with screws or clamps.

Vises And Accessories

Vises are the tools that transform the workbench from a simple, flat surface into a versatile work station. The modern woodworking bench incorporates two types of vise the face vise that secures work to the front edge of the bench, and the tail vise that uses wood or metal bench dogs to secure work on the top of the bench. The pages that follow examine ways of installing both the tail vise (page 57) and face vise (page 58).

Special 30page Section

There's no better way to improve your woodworking skills than to learn shop tips from the experts. When you apply the tips, expect the finished quality of your next project to soar. For your convenience, we've organized the tips by subject categories. When you mount a router under a table, you make this already-versatile tool even more useful. To help you take advantage of this potential, we assembled five router-table techniques guaranteed to make you a better woodworker. You'll see that a well-equipped router table not only saves you time, it can save you money by standing in for other tools.

Installing a wedge stop

A wedge stop can also be used to secure stock on a benchtop (left). The stop consists of a fixed rail and a movable rail that are secured by dowels resting in a double row of holes bored into the workbench. Together with a triangular wedge, the rails keep a workpiece from moving. Cut the rails and the wedge from -inch plywood. (You can choose thicker stock for the rails, depending on the thickness of your workpiece.) Bore two Vfe-inch-diameter holes in each rail, then glue a 2-inch-long dowel in each hole. Bore two rows of 1 2-inch-diameter holes in the workbench for the dowels. To use the stop, place the fixed rail at one end of the row of holes and the movable rail the appropriate distance away so the wedge, when positioned between the rails, will keep the workpiece steady.

Building an extension table for a band saw

An auxiliary band saw table will significantly increase the machine's versatility. The extension table shown above is especially handy for cutting long or wide pieces. Using 3 4-inch plywood, cut the top of the jig to a suitable diameter. Cut out the center and the edge to fit the top around the saw table and throat column. Saw a 1 Winch-wide channel between the cutouts so the top can be installed without removing the blade. Next, prepare two cleats that will be used to attach the saw table to the jig top. For these, two l-by-3s should be cut a few inches longer than the saw table. Then position each one in turn against the side of the saw table with threaded holes, so that they are Inch below the table surface, with at least lA inch of stock above the holes. (Make sure your machine has these holes most band saws have them for mounting an

Building a benchtop router table

The benchtop table shown above is a full-size router table with most of the features of the manufactured version, including a pivoting, quickly adjustable fence. Begin by cutting the top from Winch plywood, sized to suit your needs the table illustrated measures 24 by 36 inches. The four top rails should next be cut from l-by-2 stock and screwed in place (countersinking all screws, here and in future steps), and the entire top should be covered with a piece of Winch plastic laminate, chamfered at the edges. Turn the table over so you can screw supports around the inside edges and attach the legs to the rails and top. The supports, legs, and feet can be constructed of Winch plywood the final dimensions will be determined by the size of your table. Make sure the legs are at least long enough to furnish ample room for your router. To prepare the tabletop for the router, drill a hole about 8 inches from the front center make it slightly larger than your largest router bit. On the...

Making and using the jig

For making circular cuts out of large panels on the band saw, use a jig like the one shown above. Build the jig from 3 4-inch plywood, cutting the pieces so the top of the jig is level with the saw table when the feet are screwed or clamped to a work table. Before assembling the jig, drive a 1 Winch-long screw as a pivot point through the center of the top piece so the tip of the screw projects from the surface by about V2 inch (inset). Then screw the top and feet to the sides of the jig, and attach the triangular-shaped support brackets to the top and sides be sure to counter

Building Drawers

In its simplest form, a drawer is simply a wooden box that slides back and lorth on a permanent shelf By adding drawer slide hardware, a hardwood drawer face, and attractive pulls, you can make drawers took and feel more professional. Drawers can be built in many styles, but the drawer shown here is simple to build and works well for the understairs work center project This design is called an overlay drawer because it features a hardwood drawer face that overhangs the cabinet face frame by Ready-made hardwood drawer faces are sold by companies specializing in cabinet refacing products You can make your own drawer faces by cutting hardwood boards and using a router to give them decorative edges. Make your own drawer faces by cutting hardwood boards to the proper size, then routing ornamental edges on them with a decorative router bit such as an ogee bit To ensure smooth edges make several passes with the router, begin with the bit set to a shadow depth, then gradually extend the bit...

Work Supports

Supporting long planks and large panels as they are fed across a saw table ranks as one of the most cumbersome tasks in the woodworking shop. Outfeed tables can be attached to most saws, but they tend to take up a lot of floor space. Once side supports are added to your machine, your shop may become an obstacle course.

Shoptip 5

Cutting plywood sheets on your tablesaw is possible if you support the sheet well throughout the entire cut. As the photo at right proves, you don't need fancy equipment or a huge saw table, either. A roller (or a sawhorse outfitted with a support of proper height) placed in line with the planned saw kerf holds the end of the sheet steady at outfeed. To support the side of the sheet, be creative by positioning your drill-press table, as we did, or maybe clamping a piece of scrap stock to your jointer to match the saw table's height.

Sh0ptip54

To trim small plywood pieces from rough to final size, try running them across the jointer, as shown at right. But don't just throw the sheet on and run it through you may get chip-out at the trailing corner. Instead, place one face against the fence, and joint 2 or 3 along the edge you wish to trim. Then place the opposite face against the fence, and joint the remainder. Many of us are a little straight-line challenged when using a handheld circular saw. Sure, expensive store-bought guides are available, or you can make a shop-built straightedge guide if you cut lots of sheets. But a simpler solution exists as close as your scrap bin. Make a guide using the factory edge of a 10 - to 12 -wide scrap of plywood or hardboard. Clamp it in place for your saw's shoe to ride against, as we did below. If you're cutting on foam, simply chop out two notches to create clearance for the clamp heads. A sheet of 3A hardwood plywood can weigh 60 or 70 pounds, and it's difficult to move around. If...

Anatomy Details

Single Load Bearing Wall Raise Ceiling

The required size for the header is set by local building codes and varies according to the width of the rough opening. Fo' a window or door opening, a header can be built from two pieces of 2' dimensional lumber sandwiched around plywood (chart, right). When a large portion of a load-bearing wall (or an entire wall) is removed, a laminated beam product can be used to make the new header (page 187). '' plywood between two 2 x 4s fr plywood between two 2 x 6s plywood between two 2 x 8s Vt plywood between two 2 x 10s

Shop Layout

As they gain experience and accumulate tools, most woodworkers pine for their own special place to practice their skills. In their fantasies, the workshop is an airy space equipped with a substantial workbench and an array of stationary machines and portable tools. The reality for many woodworkers, however, is much more modest. The typical shop never seems to have enough light, power, or elbow room. Although size is often the first consideration, several other concerns may be more important. For example, situating a shop in a spare room on the main floor of a home may provide a large working area, but noise and dust from tools would probably inconvenience other members of the family. To suit their own needs without intruding too much on the people they live with, woodworkers commonly locate home shops in the basement or a garage. Each has its pros and cons. A basement is apt to be damp and may need to have its wiring and heating upgraded access can be hampered by narrow doors, tight...

Crawl space

Some homes are constructed with both a basement and a crawl space. In this case, the crawl space need not be vented to the outside but can be vented to the basement. Look for evidence of water seepage in the crawl space. Even though there might be no signs of seepage in the basement, there might be some in the crawl area. I recently inspected a home that had a combination basement-crawl space. The basement had been painted, and there were no visible signs of a past water condition. The crawl space was separated from the basement by plywood doors that were painted on the basement side and looked good. However, when I inspected the crawl space, I found evidence of a previous water condition. Apparently, the back of the plywood doors (facing the crawl area) had not been painted over. There were water stains on the lower section. (See FIG. 11-16.)

Lumber Rack

Bench Dog Placement

The storage rack at right features vertical supports screwed to wall studs. Cut from 2-by-4 stock, the supports buttress shopmade wood brackets, which hold up the lumber. You will need one support at each end of the rack, with an additional one every 32 inches along the wall. After bolting the supports to the studs, prepare the brackets by cutting the sides from 3A-inch plywood and the middle shelf piece from 2-by-4 stock lVz inches shorter than the brackets. Angle the top edge of the sides by about 5 so the brackets will tilt up slightly (inset) and prevent the lumber from falling off the rack. Screw the middle shelf piece to the sides, then screw the bracket to the vertical supports. A LUMBER-AND-PLYWOOD RACK Designed to accommodate both boards and plywood panels, the rack shown rests on the shop floor and attaches to joists in the ceiling. Lumber is loaded onto the rails from the end, while plywood can be stacked in the trough at the front and held in place by the hinged bar. Refer...

Workbench

The workbench is the cornerstone of the woodshop, with a history almost as old as woodworking itself. Examples of primitive workbenches have been found dating back more than 2,000 years. Woodworkers in ancient Rome advanced the basic design, devising benches with simple stops that allowed them to secure pieces of wood. Until that time, craftsmen were forced to hold their work, cutting or shaping it with one hand while chopping or planing with the other. Further improvements came slowly, however, and vises were only added centuries later. With each refinement the workbench has assumed an increasingly indispensable role in the workshop. It is little surprise that many call the workbench the most important tool a woodworker can own. A good workbench does not take an active role in the woodworking process it does not cut wood or shape it but the bench and its accoutrements perform another essential task They free your hands and position the work so you can cut, drill, shape, and finish...

Detached garage

The exterior of the detached garage is checked the same way you inspect the main house. Walk around the outside of the building twice. The first time, look at the roof and gutters. Do any of the roof beams appear to be sagging If so, additional bracing might be needed. Have a professional make this determination. Do not assume that the roof over the garage and the roof over the house are in the same condition. Although the roof covering on the main house might be in good condition, the covering of the garage roof might be badly worn and require replacement. (Inspecting roofs is discussed in chapter 2.) Are there gutters all around the base of the roofs If not, make sure you check all wood siding and trim for rot. The rain runoff from the roof can promote rot. A wood-frame garage with a pitched roof should have gutters. If there are long overhanging eaves or the garage is masonry-constructed, gutters are not a necessary feature, although they are often desirable. If there are gutters...

Adding Shelves

Building your own shelves from finish-grade plyv ood edged with hardwood strips is a good cho e for most carpentry projects. Edged plywood shelves are strong, attractive, and much less expensive than solid hardwood shelves. Attach hardwood edging or moldings to the front face of plywood shelves, using wood glue and finish nails. Position the edgmg so the top is slightly above the plywood surface, then drill pilot holes and drive finish nails Use a nail set to countersink the nail heads Sand the edging so it is smooth with the plywood surtace before you finish the shelf (pages 244 to 247). For greater strength, edge plywood shelves with 1 x 2 or 1 x 3 hardwood boards (photo, left)

Making a flipup stop

The flip-up bench stop shown at right provides another way to make quick guided crosscuts on a workbench. Cut the two pieces of the stop from hardwood. Screw the pieces to the end of the benchtop on the bench shown, the inner edge of the pivoting piece is lined up with the edge of the tool tray to provide a convenient reference line for squaring up a crosscut. Screw the stationary piece in place with two screws, and the flip-up piece with one so that it can pivot. When not in use, the pivoting piece should lie on edge atop the stationary piece. To use the stop, flip up the pivoting piece, butt the workpiece against it, and make your crosscut.

Pitched roofs

Ventilation of the area directly below the roof deck is very important, especially in newer buildings where the deck is constructed of plywood panels rather than tongue-and-groove boards. If the area is inadequately ventilated, a moisture buildup can eventually cause the plywood sheathing to delaminate. This moisture problem is particularly acute in homes that have cathedral ceilings constructed in the following manner The ceiling is plasterboard or an equivalent type of panel nailed directly to the roof rafters. Above the ceiling is insulation, and above this is the roof deck. Often there is a small air space between the insulation and the deck. When the moisture normally generated in the house by cooking, bathing, and so on reaches the area of the deck, there must be vent openings through which it can escape. Otherwise, rot and delam-ination can occur. A high percentage of the homes built with this type of cathedral ceiling have inadequately ventilated roof structures. Vent openings...

Lid Fullsize Pattern

' b plywood From Vi Baltic birch plywood, cut a piece 4lAx4'A to fit into the rabbeted top opening in the box. Apply the full-size lid pattern (Drawing 5, page 128) to the top of the plywood. To act as a backing board to prevent chip-out, tape a piece of stock to the bottom side of the lid. Using a Forstner bit. drill the Vs holes through the lid. Then, scrollsaw the openings in the lid to shape. Drill blade start holes, and cut the squares to shape. Cut a piece of 'A stock to 2 wide by 24 long. (We planed down a yV'-thick piece of lacewood. See Source for our buying guide for this stock and the As plywood.) As shown in Steps 1 and 2 of Drawing 1, cut two rabbets along the inside surface of the stock. Then, use a ' round-over bit to rout a partial round-over along the outside top edge of the board, as shown in Step 3.

Sanders

Extend the life of a sanding belt y cleaning it with an old tennis shoe that has a natural rubber so'e Turn the sander on and press the sole of he shoe against the belt for a few seconds Wood dust trapped between the grit on the sanding belt will cling to the shoe's rubber sole

Shopmade Edge Dogs

Start by cutting the dogs from hardwood stock. Both left-hand and right-hand dogs are needed, with the heads angled in opposing directions. Bore a Vi-inch-diameter hole through the ends, and drive a 3-inch length of dowel in each hole. Then insert the dowel in a bench dog hole and angle the dog so It extends beyond the edge of the table. Mark a 90 notch for the head perpendicular to the edge of the bench and cut it out. To hold the edge dog in place when clamping pressure is applied, saw a Vi-inch-slice off the

Enermax

Enjoyed seeing your set-up in 7, warts and all. Most of us build a house to store all our junk - it's nice to see a house built with more important things in mind like supporting radio antennas Besides it's not what you've got, it's how you use it that's important. All the info that springs out of the plywood palace is real important to your readers. Mine consisted of a double plywood box, insulated between with fiberglass, and faced with 2 layers of glass. A hinged back became the door and inside I lined the floor and walls with a thin sheet of aluminum flashing mounted 1 inch away from the surfaces. Everything expect the glass and hinges came from leftovers or scraps and was built with a hammer and a saw by a very inexperienced person I completed the box with three reflector fins of plywood faced with aluminum foil.

Sawhorses

Sawhorses have countless uses in the woodworking shop, from table legs to tool stands. Occasionally it seems that their original purpose to support boards for sawing is only an afterthought. It is easy to see why sawhorses are considered so versatile, for their compact design makes them especially useful in shops with limited floor space. Some commercial models, like the ones in the photo at right, can be adjusted to different heights and folded up for easy storage. With commercial brackets (below), you can size sawhorses to suit your needs. The shop-made horses featured on page 119 can be disassembled and put away after use.

Insulation

Does Vapour Barrior Prevent Rot Walls

Insulation is available in a variety of forms and materials. The three most common forms are flexible insulation, loose-fill insulation, and rigid insulation. Flexible insulation is manufactured in two types, batts and blankets. Both are made of fibrous materials such as glass fibers, rock wool, wood fibers, or cotton. Organic fibers are treated chemically to make them resistant to fire and decay. Batts are precut in 4-or 8-foot lengths and are available in thicknesses between 2 and 6 inches. Blankets are furnished in continuous rolls and are available in thicknesses between 1M and 3 inches. Both batts and blankets are manufactured in 15- and 23-inch widths so that they can be readily used in homes that have been constructed with joist and stud spacing of 16 or 24 inches. Loose-fill insulation is generally made from rock wool, glass fibers, vermiculite, pearlite, cellulose, granulated cork, shredded redwood bark, sawdust, or wood shavings. It is normally supplied in bags or bales and...

Exterior walls

Metal Stud Partition Wall Construction

The exterior walls in most residential structures will be either wood frame or masonry, sometimes a combination of the two. The latter is commonly called a veneer wall. The exterior walls rest directly on the foundation and are bearing (load-supporting) walls. They support the roof, floors, and vertical loads imposed by other building components. The outer covering of the exterior walls provides protection from the weather and, if properly installed, minimizes the flow of air, moisture, and heat into or out of the structure. When the walls are wood frame, the vertical framing members (studs) support all the vertical loads, and the outer finish covering (generally called siding) provides weather protection. Insulation is normally located in the spaces between the studs. In masonry walls, the masonry (clay tile, brick, stone, concrete block, etc.) provides both the structural support and the weather barrier. A masonry-veneer wall is a wood-frame wall with masonry used in place of the...

Lead roofing

Lead Roof Pictures

Lead sheet is commonly used as both a pitched and a flat roof covering, as well as for gutter linings, flashings, soakers and vertical claddings. Roofing and cladding panels of lead bonded to steel over a plywood, or other, building board, and lead bonded directly to building board are also produced. These may be used for roofing or cladding.

Powderpost beetles

Powder Post Beetles Marking Wood

There are many types of wood-boring beetles. The ones whose larvae or grubs feed on seasoned wood and break it down to a powdery residue are commonly called powder-post beetles. These beetles exist all over the United States, although the greatest concentration will be found in those states with a warm, humid climate. The two principal varieties of powder-post beetles are the lyctid and the anobiid beetles. The lyctid beetle attacks only hardwoods the anobiid beetle attacks both soft and hardwood timbers. For the most part, powder-post beetles are usually brought into the house via the wood that had been used in its construction. Building materials might become infested while being stockpiled in the lumberyard. The insects might also be brought into the house in finished wood products such as oak flooring, paneling, and furniture. ished wood. After the eggs hatch, the larvae feed and tunnel their way through the wood, reducing it to a powder. Depending on the temperature and moisture...

Attached garage

Is there an interior door between the garage and the house If there is, is there at least one step leading up to the door There should be. (See FIG. 7-1.) It is surprising how often I find that the garage floor slab is at the same or a higher level than the adjacent living area. (See FIG. 7-2.) The living area should be above the level of the garage floor to prevent toxic exhaust gases and gasoline vapors, which are heavier than air, from entering the house whenever the interior door is opened. As a precautionary measure, the interior door should have a tight seal around the joints to prevent seepage. This door should be fire-resistant, such as metal-clad, solid wood, or hollow core, with a sheet-metal covering on Next, look at the walls that separate the garage from the living area. Are there exposed wood-frame members There should not be. Exposed wood framing in this area is considered a fire hazard and should be covered with a fire-resistant material such as plaster or stucco on...

Jig Saws

The jig saw is a very good portable power tool for cutting curves. The cutting capacity of a jig saw depends on its power and the length of its blade stroke. Choose a saw rated to cut 2Mhick softwood and thick hardwood stock Many jig saws have a pivoting baseplate that can be locked so you can make bevel cuts as well Cut metals with a fine-tooth metal-cutting blade and select a slow blade speed Support sheet metals with thin plywood to eliminate vibration Use emery paper or a file to smooth burred edges left by the blade. Cut metals with a fine-tooth metal-cutting blade and select a slow blade speed Support sheet metals with thin plywood to eliminate vibration Use emery paper or a file to smooth burred edges left by the blade.

Making a bench hook

The shop-built jig shown at right will ensure that the crosscuts you make on the workbench will be square. Use -inch plywood for the base and strips of 2-by-2 stock for the lips. Make the base at least as long as the width of your workpiece and wide enough to support it. Screw the lips to the guide, attaching one to each face. To use the jig, butt one lip against the edge of the bench and press the work-piece firmly against the other. Align the cutting line with the edge of the base and make the cut (inset).

Drywood termites

Once a colony is established, it feeds on the wood around the nest. Dry-wood termites are general feeders and eat spring- and summer-grown wood. The galleries thus formed will cut across the grain. The cavities contain pellets of partially digested wood. These pellets are tiny, seedlike, and usually straw-colored. On occasion, some of the pellets are pushed through openings in the wood surface. If there is not much accumulation, the pellets can easily be overlooked. They are, however, often the first sign of infestation. you happen to be in the room during an occurrence. Since dry-wood termites can attack wood located anywhere in the house, from the attic to the crawl space, all the exposed wood should be checked for signs of infestation. The wood should be gently probed, so as not to break the surface. Infested wood has hollow sections and if heavily probed, can break open, spilling the seedlike pellets. Dry-wood termites often consume wood up to the paint itself, forming what...

Conductance meters

Timber is, in fact, the only building material where a moisture meter can give an accurate moisture reading. This is because meters are specifically calibrated for timber. Although there are differences between timber species, and between hardwoods and softwoods, the differences are not particularly significant and can be corrected for if an accurate moisture content is required for a known species. There are, however, one or two pitfalls which should be recognised by anyone carrying out testing to assess moisture content. For example, readings from an electric moisture meter can be affected (readings will be too high) if the timber has been treated with water based preservatives. The temperature of the wood will also affect readings.

Work Tables

Zip System Panel

Almost as strong as a traditional workbench, this commercial work table is a versatile workhorse, especially when paired with a woodworker's vise. The cabinet and drawers provide storage space, and can be locked to secure valuable tools. For many light woodworking chores, from marking out joints to assembling pieces of furniture, a simple work table fits the bill as well as a traditional woodworker's bench. This section features several table designs. All are quick, easy, and inexpensive to build. The table shown opposite is sufficiently large and sturdy for most jobs if space is at a premium, a good compromise would be one of the fold-up versions shown on pages 115 and 116. You can also conserve space by incorporating storage shelves, drawers, or cabinets in your design. For assembling carcases and other pieces of furniture, you may find the low-to-the-ground table on page 114 handier than a standard-height work surface. The all-purpose table shown below Is built with a combination...

Clamps

Use C-clamps for clamping jobs from 1 to 6*. To protect work-pieces, place scrap wood blocks between the jaws of the clamp and the workpiece surface Use C-clamps for clamping jobs from 1 to 6*. To protect work-pieces, place scrap wood blocks between the jaws of the clamp and the workpiece surface Use handscrews 10 hold materials together at var ous angles while glue is drying. Handscrews are wooden clamps with two adjusting screws The jaws won't damage wood surfaces

Windows

Windows and glazing have been the focus of more technological research than perhaps any other home building product. The latest versions can resist heat or cold and provide R-ratings nearly equal to a solid wall. They can come in solid wood or vinyl exteriors with wood interiors and in many varieties, including bays and double-hungs, as well as in massive sizes.

Tray Support

The rail assembly is what makes the this, I glued in a hardwood filler strip (B) unique pull out, drop down feature to create a stopped groove. time to put the rail assembly together. The next step is to cut a rabbet in First, clamp the mounting plate between made of five parts two hardwood rails the top and bottom edge of each rail, the rails. Using the countersunk holes as that enclose the sides of the unit, two The rabbets in the top edges accept the guides, drill pilot holes in the rails, and aluminum tray supports, and a hard- mounting plate. The bottom rabbets attach the mounting plate with screws. Make the Tray Each tray is a box made of ( -thick hardwood

Side Rabbet Detail

The case backs (P) are the next parts that get installed.To echo the look of the beadboard paneling in the room, I made the backs from -thick beaded plywood. Then the backs get tacked on with 1 brads. Fit the Face Frames A solid-wood face frame comes next for each case (Face Frame Assembly, left).To make each face frame, cut the stiles (Q) and a top, middle, and bottom rail (R, S,T) to size from solid stock.Then assemble the frame with pocket screws.

Lower Guide

The drawer fronts and backs (T, U) are each made of thick hardwood, taller than the upper drawers). Their in the side (Top View).The three steps a groove in each piece to hold a XA construction, however, is identical, below will help walk you through plywood bottom. After you finish

Face Frame Stile

The top and bottom trays are fixed in dadoes cut in the plywood drawer front back. The center tray is adjustable and rests on shelf pins.To begin, cut the front back pieces (I) to size, and then cut dadoes in them for the fixed trays (Dado Detail, below). Next, lay out and drill all the shelf pin holes on the drawer fronts and backs. Assembling the Trays The three storage trays are each made from melamine bottom panels (J,L) and hardwood sides (K, M). One thing to note about working with melamine it chips easily, so you need to guard against that. To prevent this, run a strip by attaching hardwood rails and stiles

Door Panel

To prevent water and humidity from ruining the vanity's solid-wood top, you'll want to finish it with at least three coats of spar varnish. This bathroom vanity is just about complete. To finish it, I added a thick solid-wood top and a three-part apron assembly (Illustrations, below).

Detail

Next, cut a plywood bottom (G) to size, and glue and clamp the handle rest in place. At this point, you can also add the blade dividers. To do this, just spread glue on each divider, and space them evenly across the plywood bottom. Finally, fasten the knob (H) onto the divider with a dowel (I) and glue to complete this sharp storage solution.

Center Divider

NOTE All dadoes, grooves, and rabbets are cut V4 deep to fit 3A plywood bit that's specially made to produce snug-fitting joints when working with plywood, which is slightly thinner than (see page 71). Assemble the Case Once the joinery is all complete, you're ready to assemble the case.These large plywood panels are a bit cumbersome to work with, so you'll want to have a helper on hand during the assembly process. Also, be sure to dry-fit the case first, and make any adjustments that are needed. Then pre-drill the holes for the woodscrews used to hold all the parts together.

Case Stile

The display case is a divided plywood box that's wrapped with hardwood frames on three sides. But notice here that the frame corners are beveled.That way, there won't be any edge grain showing. To finish, the entire display case is capped with a solid-wood panel. Constructing the Case To build the case, begin by cutting the top and bottom (Q) and dividers (R) to size from thick plywood.You'll also need to cut dadoes in the top and bottom to accept the dividers.Then to finish, simply glue and nail the dividers between the case top and bottom. Build the Frames -With the case constructed, you're ready to make the hardwood frames. There are three All that's left is to add the case cap (W), and then trim this cap with cove molding. The cap is a glued-up solid-wood panel with a roundover on the two long edges and the front. Use a 14 roundover bit in the router table to do this. After you've finished, glue and nail it to the top of the case. Build the Face Frame With the case built, the next...

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