Power Efficiency Guide

Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

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1.1 Single family house in Thening 2

1.2 Installation of a vacuum-insulated roof panel 3

1.3 A compact heating system 5

1.4 A solar water storage 'tank in tank' 6

1.5 Wall section of the row houses in Lindas 7

1.1.1 Energy demand 11

1.2.1 U-values of the building envelope components 12

1.2.2 Window U-values 12

2.1.1 Twenty terrace houses in four rows; solar collectors on the roof 15

2.1.2 Site plan 16

2.1.3 Section 16

2.1.4 Floor plans 17

2.1.5 View from the south 17

2.2.1 Energy supply for domestic hot water (DHW), space heating and ventilation 18

2.2.2 Section 18

2.2.3 Windows in the end wall 20

2.2.4 U-values of the building envelope parts 20

2.2.5 Solar collectors and roof windows 21

2.2.6 Monitored delivered energy per house unit during a year: DHW heating, space heating, electricity for mechanical systems and household electricity; the dark bars are end units 22

2.2.7 Delivered energy in the Swedish existing building stock (average single family houses, according to the Swedish Energy Agency) compared with the terrace houses in Lindas 22

3.1.1 The solar housing estate in Gelsenkirchen 25

3.1.2 Site plan 26

3.1.3 Wooden frame houses, southern tract 26

3.1.4 Massive houses, southern tract 27

3.1.5 Massive houses, northern tract 27

3.2.1 Section 28

3.2.2 Ground floor plan 28

3.2.3 First floor plan 28

3.2.4 Top floor plan 29

3.2.5 U-values 30

3.2.6 Heat distribution, south housing tract 31

3.2.7 Energy flow diagram 31

3.2.8 Roof-mounted photovoltaic system 31


Cumulative energy demand (CED) contribution from buildings (light grey)

and infrastructure






Comparison of building types



Comparison of constructions



Annual primary energy for heating and construction per house



South façade



Site plan









Second floor



Timber construction






Air heater



Energy supply



Detail section of north façade






Ground pipe



Vacuum collectors as balcony railing



Thin film solar cells on the roof



North entrance



Bird's eye view



Life-cycle phases, Eco-indicator 99 H/A



Building components, Eco-indicator 99 H/A



Living room, middle attic apartment



Non-renewable cumulative energy demand of building components



Living room, west attic apartment



Technical room



Shading south façade



South façade



Site plan






Ground plan



Prefabricated timber construction






Control system



Energy supply



Fibre cement slabs and wooden slats












Floor to cellar






Supply air with heater coils and absorbing ducts



Solar collectors and PV installation on the roof



View from the north



Balconies to the south






Life-cycle phases, Eco-indicator 99 H/A


5.3.5 Building components, Eco-indicator 99 H/A 63

5.3.6 Building components - cumulative energy demand (non-renewable) 64

5.3.7 Access from the north 65

5.3.8 Housing estate: View from the south 65 5.5.1 Entrance ground floor 67

6.1.1 The Vienna Utendorfgasse Passivhaus Apartment Building 69

6.1.2 Sketch of the section and standard floor of one of the three buildings 70

6.1.3 Static system of the thermal decoupling 70

6.2.1 Energy supply 71

6.2.2 Distribution of the heat load and the heat requirement of the units in building 2 71

6.2.3 Insulation boundary for stair towers in section and plan 71

6.2.4 U-values 73

6.2.5 Fire protection of window from façade fire propagation 73

6.2.6 Technical concept 74 6.3.1 Constructional extra costs for the Passivhaus standard in the social housing per square metre of living area, excluding sales tax (2003) 74

7.1.1 Plus Energy House, Thening, Austria: View south 77

7.1.2 Site plan 78

7.1.3 Section; floor plan, ground level; floor plan, first floor 78

7.2.1 Energy supply concept 79

7.2.2 Exterior wall construction and foundation detail 80

7.2.3 U-values 81

7.2.4 Solar collectors for warm water supply 81

7.2.5 Façade solar collector absorber 82

7.2.6 Mounting of the photovoltaic modules 82

7.2.7 Living room 82

7.2.8 Room air supply ventilation jet 83

7.2.9 Ventilation ambient air inlet 83

7.2.10 Ground pipes 83

7.2.11 Scheme of domestic engineering 84

9.1.1 Development of the mean U-values of building envelopes (including windows)

of buildings in Germany over the last 35 years 91

9.1.2 Comparison of different wall construction types achieving the same U-value by means of varying materials and dimensions 92

9.1.3 Improved lightweight constructions 92

9.1.4 Presentation of the heat losses of different building parts of a high-performance house related to the floor area in moderate climates (Germany) 93

9.1.5 Comparison of investment costs and thermal insulation quality of the different parts of the building envelope in Germany (cost basis 2002) 94

9.1.6 Comparison of the thermal conductivity of standard expanded polystyrene (EPS)

and graphite embedded material 96

9.1.7 Optimized hole configurations and reduced brick piers in high-performance brick stones 96

9.1.8 Application of glass-bubble plaster compared to conventional plaster on brick 97

9.1.9 Application of an infrared-coated plaster system with lotus effects 97

9.1.10 Principle scheme of micro-encapsulated phase-change material (PCM) in plasters 97

9.1.11 Vacuum insulation material panel compared to mineral wool panel of the same thermal resistance 98

9.1.12 Exemplary wall-ceiling joint with minimized thermal bridge effect and optimized air tightness 99

9.1.13 Daylight wedges in insulation systems allowing a better use of daylight 99

9.3.1 Entry door 104

9.3.2 Wooden sandwich door 104

9.3.3 Aluminium sandwich door 104

9.3.4 Example of a vacuum-insulated door 105

9.3.5 Example of a high insulation glass entry door 106

9.3.6 Entry vestibule of row houses in Göteborg 106

9.3.7 Interior versus exterior vestibules 107

9.3.8 Temperatures inside the vestibule compared to the ambient temperature 107

9.4.1 Principle types T and O for solar wall heating with transparent insulation (type O

can be vented in summer for effective overheating protection) 110

9.4.2 Principle of solar insulation: Solar gains and heat losses balance each other over the heating season 110

9.4.3 Schematic view of Sto Solar system 111

9.4.4 Cross-section of transparent insulation (Tl)-insulated glazing, utilizing noble gas filling and low-e coatings 111

9.4.5 View of thin cardboard honeycomb structure (gap solar) 112

9.4.6 Thermal resistance network for system consisting of transparent insulation cover and wall (Ri, Re: interior and exterior surface coefficients) 113

9.4.7 Solar gains dependent on climate for variable reference buildings and for constant low energy buildings - with and without 10 m2 solar wall heating (SWH) 114

9.4.8 Yearly space heating demand for different building standards and variable solar wall heating design (Zurich climate) 115

9.4.9 Primary energy savings per gross area solar wall heating for the climate of Zurich and for different building insulation levels 115

9.4.10 Infrared picture of wall section with two TI elements in front of a 240 mm limestone wall (January, 9.00 pm; maximum surface temperature 32°C) 116

9.4.11 Room temperature distribution based on dynamical simulations of the reference row house with 10 m2 high-performance TI with 1 m balcony compared to the house without TI and balcony (both nighttime ventilation with 2 air changes per hour) 116

9.5.1 A high-quality window construction with thermal insulation layer in the multi-layer frame (three-pane glazing with thermal optimized edge system) 118

9.5.2 Condensation at the inner surface of a standard window with an aluminium edge system and small glazing rebate of only 15 mm 119

9.5.3 Different configurations of high-performance glazing 120

9.5.4 Standard wooden window frame (70 mm) compared to a thermally optimized frame, shown together with a graph of isothermal and heat flow lines 121

9.5.5 Window frame made of a wood polyurethane-wood sandwich plate 122

9.5.6 Wooden frame with an additional thermal insulating shell 123

9.5.7 Thermally insulated plastic profile 123

9.5.8 Thermally separated aluminium frame with minimal thermal bridges 124

9.5.9 Plastic profile and glass fibre-reinforced profile instead of steel profile 124

9.5.10 Wood fibre-reinforced plastic profile; no steel for stiffening is necessary 125

9.5.11 Design details for positioning a window in a wall 126

9.5.12 Bevelled wall openings to increase solar gains; the aspect ratio in this example is as good as in standard walls without any thermal insulation 126 9.6.1 Measured g-values of different shading devices in combination with a double clear glazing 130

9.6.2 The influence of the position of a beige shading screen: The g-value is shown for the system of shading and window; the g-value for the bare window is also shown

(south orientation in a cold Stockholm climate) 130

9.6.3 Italian awning 131

9.6.4 A horizontal slatted baffle combined with photovoltaics on the vertical mantle 132

9.6.5 Monthly mean g-values for the combination of window and exterior shading: Triple-glazed window with argon (12 mm) and 2 low-e coatings (4 per cent); south orientation in a cold Stockholm climate 133

9.6.6 Monthly mean g-values for the combination of window and exterior shading: Triple-glazed window with argon (12 mm) and 2 low-e coatings (4 per cent); west orientation in a cold Stockholm climate 133

9.6.7 Monthly mean g-values for the combination of window and exterior shading: Triple-glazed window with argon (12 mm) and 2 low-e coatings (4 per cent); south orientation in a temperate Zurich climate 133

9.6.8 Monthly mean g-values for the combination of window and exterior shading: Triple-glazed window with argon (12 mm) and 2 low-e coatings (4 per cent); west orientation in a temperate Zurich climate 134

9.6.9 Monthly mean g-values for the combination of window and exterior shading: Triple-glazed window with argon (12 mm) and 2 low-e coatings (4 per cent); south orientation in a mild Milan climate 134

9.6.10 Monthly mean g-values for the combination of window and exterior shading: Triple-glazed window with argon (12 mm) and 2 low-e coatings (4 per cent); west orientation in a mild Milan climate 134

9.6.11 Monthly mean g-values for the combination of a triple-glazed window and inter-pane shading: Double-glazed sealed unit with argon (12 mm) and a low-e coating (4 per cent) plus an air gap (84 mm) and clear glass on the outside with a low-e coating (16 per cent) 135

9.6.12 Monthly mean g-values for the combination of window and interior shading: Triple-glazed window with argon and 2 low-e coatings (4 per cent); south orientation in a cold Stockholm climate 136

9.6.13 G-values for the combination of window and interior shading in relation to the reflectance of the fabric: Triple-glazed window with argon and 2 low-e coatings

(4 per cent); south orientation in a cold Stockholm climate 136

11.1.1 Heat delivery and heating power 157

11.1.2 Temperature difference, flow rate and heat delivery to room 158

11.1.3 Room air humidity (steady state) as a function of outdoor air change rate for two indoor temperatures and two typical outdoor humidity values 159

11.1.4 Cumulative frequency of temperature differences between supply air and living room in a high-performance house for the period of October-March 161

11.1.5 Draft risk characteristics: supply air valve, adjustable; simple grid, not adjustable 162

11.2.1 The self-regulation effect of a radiant heating system 165

11.2.2 Phase shift and delay time of a massive radiant heating system 166

11.2.3 A building scheme with hypocaust and murocaust heated from a solar air collector 166

11.2.4 Scheme of a hypocaust 166

11.2.5 Examples of hypocaust systems 167

11.2.6 Example for a site-built hypocaust with embedded tubes 167

12.1.1 Scheme of solar-assisted ventilation and solar radiant heating 169

12.1.2 Solar-assisted ventilation system with integrated domestic hot water (DHW): Schemes of closed- and open-loop hypocaust systems and solar-assisted ventilation systems 171

12.1.3 Efficiency curves of different air collector types 173

12.1.4 Efficiency versus mass flow rate 173

12.1.5 Collector efficiency: A comparison between thermal efficiency and efficiency considering fan electricity 174

12.1.6 A Swiss apartment building with integrated solar air collectors 174

12.2.1 Efficiencies of different collector types under different conditions and appropriate uses 176

12.2.2 Solar radiation for different orientations in the reference climates (south = 0°, north = 180°); solar radiation for different tilt angles in the reference climates for a south-facing collector 177

12.2.3 Influence of storage size on system output for 96 m2 of collectors serving an apartment block 178

12.2.4 Two schemes for sizing the storage-to-collector area for the three reference climates 178

12.2.5 Monthly solar heat output of a household solar DHW system with 45° tilt and 8 m2 of collectors supplying a 500 litre storage tank in three climates (demand

120 litres/day at 50°C) 179

12.2.6 Collector costs in relation to collector area 179

12.2.7 Solar heating kWh costs in relation to collector area 179

12.2.8 Solar share from a combi-system in Zurich for a detached house with 16 m2 of collector tilted at 45° and supplying a 2000 litre storage tank 181

12.5.1 Automated wood pellet central heating 186

12.5.2 Combined water storage, pellet burner and integrated pellet storage system 187

12.5.3 Wood pellet transport 188

12.5.4 Wood chip district heating plant 188

12.5.5 Combined solar-biomass district heating: Monthly share of solar heat 189

12.6.1 The basic electrochemical fuel cell process: Oxidation of hydrogen by means of oxygen 190

12.6.2 Basic layout of a fuel cell as the house energy supply system with grid connection 191

12.6.3 Energy supply system of the 'self-sufficient solar house' 192

12.6.4 Measured energy flow diagram of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell operated with hydrogen 193

12.6.5 The Sulzer Hexis system 193

12.7.1 An annual duration curve 195

12.7.2 Typical heat losses of piping 197

12.7.3 A flexible integrated plastic pipe system with two media 198

12.7.4 Methods of pipe laying 198

12.8.1 Principle of using earth-coupled heat pumps in low energy houses 202

12.8.2 Separate components in a modular system with an earth-coupled heat pump in a monitoring project; the ventilation system is on the left side, the heat pump on the right side 202

12.8.3 Principle of compact heating and ventilation units for solar passive houses (compact

HV unit) 202

12.8.4 Example of a compact heating and ventilation unit 203

12.8.5 Measurement results from the solar passive house in Büchenau/Bruchsal 203

12.8.6 Comparison of the electricity needed for building services in solar passive houses when individual components are combined and compact heating and ventilation units are used 203

12.9.1 Basic system layout and temperature profile for a high-performance house application, winter mode 205

12.9.2 An earth-to-air heat exchanger (eta-hx) during construction for a terrace house in Neuenburg, Germany; annual performance of the terrace houses 205

12.9.3 Calculated ground temperature as a function of depth of clay soil type in Freiburg,

Germany 207

12.10.1 Scheme of a heating distribution net using geothermal heat for a large community 211

12.10.2 Ground-coupled air heat exchanger for preheating air in high-performance houses 212

12.10.3 Comparison of a direct-use system with a vertical geothermal heat exchanger coupled to a heat pump system 212

13.1.1 Types of water storage systems to achieve stratification 216

13.1.2 Solar radiation by latitude, including minima, maxima and their ratios 217

13.1.3 An example of seasonal thermal storage 218

13.1.4 Concepts for seasonal thermal storage 218

13.1.5 An example of a reversible chemical storage process 219

13.2.1 Heat absorbed and released by phase change 220

13.2.2 Phase-change material in building constructions 221

13.2.3 Phase-change materials in tanks 222

14.1.1 The relevance of the photovoltaic (PV) energy yield in different housing concepts 223

14.1.2 Relative annual radiation on surfaces with different orientations and tilts:

Stockholm, Zurich, Milan 225

14.1.3 'Zero-energy balance' house in Emmendingen, Germany 226

14.1.4 Monitored energy consumption in 2001/2002 for the demonstration house in Emmendingen, Germany 226

14.2.1 Photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) module with polycrystalline silicon cells taken apart to show the principal design 227

14.2.2 Spectral distribution of solar radiation and the internal quantum efficiency for a silicon solar cell 228

14.2.3 Water cooled PV/T hybrid and air-cooled PV/T hybrid 229

14.2.4 PV twins: A PV/T water module 230

14.2.5 Geometry of a compound parabolic collector (CPC); the angular acceptance for a full and a truncated CPC 231

14.2.6 The geometry of a truncated standard CPC concentrator with a concentration factor of C = 4 and an acceptance angle of q = 12° 231

14.2.7 Stationary asymmetric CPC concentrator (MaReCo) installed on a roof in Stockholm;

the acceptance interval is 20° to 65° 232

14.2.8 The solar window: The window is shown in open position, when daylight will enter the room; when the window is closed (the reflectors are tilted clockwise), the light is concentrated 2.45 times onto the hybrid absorber 232

14.2.9 A fagade-integrated concentrating solar collector 233

14.3.1 Shares of energy use in an energy-efficient Swedish detached house in 1990 234

14.3.2 CO2 equivalent emissions, non-renewable primary energy demand and electricity end use 1987 (standard) and 2002 (best available technology) 235

15.2.1 Interconnection of various building disciplines with the European Installation

Bus (EIB) system 240

15.2.2 General configuration of an EIB device 240

15.2.3 EIB devices connected to a line segment 241

15.2.4 Configuration of an EIB line 241

15.2.5 Configuration of a main line 242

15.2.6 Configuration of an area line 243


National primary energy factors for electricity; the line represents the EU-17 mix that is used in this book

A1.2 National CO2 equivalent conversion factors for electricity; the line represents the

EU-17 mix that is used in this book 255

A2.1 A very low energy house in Bruttisholz, CH by architect Norbert Aregger 261


1.3.1 Technical systems 13

2.2.1 Constructions 19

2.2.2 Monitored average energy use in kWh/m2a for the 20 units 22

3.4.1 The building costs 35

4.3.1 Basic parameters 44

4.4.1 Account classification: All costs, including planning honorarium and 7.6 per cent value-added tax 49

4.4.2 Account classification: All costs, including 7.6 per cent value-added tax, excluding planning honorarium 49

5.3.1 Basic parameters for the Wechsel house 61 5.4.1 Account classification: All costs, including planning honorarium and 7.6 per cent value-added tax 66

7.3.1 Building costs 84

9.1.1 Properties of insulation materials 95

9.1.2 Typical applications of polyurethane (PUR) insulation systems 98

9.2.1 Typical guide values for thermal bridges in building constructions 101

9.2.2 Guide values for thermal bridges between the window frame and window glass (ONORM B 8110-1) 101

9.2.3 Transmission losses in housing with different envelope insulation standards:

Detached single family house 101

9.2.4 Transmission losses in housing with different envelope insulation standards:

Row house 102

9.2.5 Transmission losses in housing with different envelope insulation standards:

Apartment building 102

9.3.1 Properties of a wooden sandwich door 103

9.3.2 Properties of a metal sandwich door 104

9.3.3 Properties of a door with vacuum panel insulation 105

9.3.4 Properties of a window as a door 105

9.3.5 Effect of vestibule location on house heating demand (kWh/m2a) 108

9.3.6 Effect of a vestibule versus a super door on house heating demand (kWh/m2a) 108

9.3.7 Requirements for a high-performance entry 108 9.4.1 Product characteristics (selection) 112

10.1.1 Typical emission rates of water vapour for some sources 140

10.1.2 Recommended nominal air flow rates for rooms with various functions 141 10.2.1 Estimated ranges of air change rates for different states of window openings 142 10.3.1 Air filter classes (degree of retention versus particle size) 147

11.1.1 Air exchange efficiency 162

12.3.1 Fossil fuels, reserves and projected availability (reach) 182

12.3.2 Characteristics of common fossil fuels 183

12.6.1 Characteristic data of the principal fuel cell systems 190

12.6.2 Key system data of Sulzer Hexis HXS 1000 Premiere 192

12.7.1 Costs of district heating piping 199

12.7.2 Costs of sub-stations 199

12.7.3 Design parameters for a small distribution system 199

12.9.1 Performance of an air-to-air heat recovery system with an earth-to-air heat exchanger (eta-hx) 206

12.9.2 Typical eta-hx configurations applied in the International Energy Agency (IEA)

task demonstration buildings 209

12.9.3 Simulation tools 209

13.1.1 A sample of storage materials and key properties 216

14.1.1 Annual solar irradiation data for three cities 224

14.2.1 Typical performance parameters of flat-plate collectors and flat hybrids 229

14.3.1 Yearly energy use of electrical appliances 235

14.3.2 Electricity use of standard and energy-efficient household appliances 236

15.6.1 Costs for electrical installations with and without a bus system for different standards of equipment 249

A1.1 Primary energy factor (PEF) and CO2 conversion factors 254

A1.2 Primary energy factors for electricity (non-renewable) 255

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