Figures

1.1 Single family house in Thening 2 1.2 Installation of a vacuum-insulated roof panel 3 1.3 A compact heating system 5 1.4 A solar water storage 'tank in tank' 6 1.5 Wall section of the row houses in Lindas 7 1.2.1 U-values of the building envelope components 12 2.1.1 Twenty terrace houses in four rows solar collectors on the roof 15 2.1.5 View from the south 17 2.2.1 Energy supply for domestic hot water (DHW), space heating and ventilation 18 2.2.3 Windows in the end wall 20 2.2.4 U-values of...

Opaque building envelope

Hans Erhorn and Johann Reiss 9.1.1 Concept Typically, 50 per cent to 75 per cent of the heat losses of conventional buildings results from transmission losses through the building envelope. These losses can be drastically reduced - for example, in Germany a 50 per cent reduction has been achieved since 1970. This reduction has been halved again by high-performance houses. The transmission losses of a typical house (with 1.5 to 2.0 m2 of building envelope per m2 heated floor area) can be...

Fuel cells

Karsten Voss, Benoit Sicre and Andreas Buhring 12.6.1 Concept Fuel cells, like batteries, are electrochemical power sources. Whereas batteries store energy, fuel cells transform energy. A fuel cell steadily supplied with fuel generates electricity. The fuel can be virtually any chemical substance containing hydrogen. When hydrogen alone is not readily available as a fuel, it can be produced from substances such as natural gas, oil or methanol by a process called 'reforming'. Reforming, however,...

Preconditioning of supply air by an earthtoair heat exchanger EHX

Ventilation inlet air can be tempered if it passes through a buried pipe before entering the building. The thermal efficiency A EHX of such a system is the ratio between the temperature difference between air entering and exiting the system Toutlet - Tinlet and the temperature difference between the ground at that depth and the ambient TGROUND - TAMB eEHX eHR (TOUTLET - TAMB) (TGROUND - TAMB) 1 .19 Tout is the air temperature after having passed the EHX. It is equal to the air temperature at...

List of Acronyms and

ATS architecture towards sustainability CERT Committee on Energy Research and Technology CO2eq carbon dioxide equivalent CPC compound parabolic concentrator ECBCS Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems EHSA European Home Systems Association EHX earth-to-air heat exchanger EIBA European Installation Bus Association EnBW Energie Baden-W rttemberg EPS expanded polystyrene insulation ERDA US Energy and Research Administration eta-hx earth-to-air heat exchanger heating, ventilating...

Anne Haas 1111 Concept

The low heating power needed by high-performance housing can be covered by using the supply air of a balanced mechanical ventilation system to deliver needed heat. This dual function - delivering fresh air and heat with the same system - is economical. Eliminating a separate heat distribution system is a big saving. This does require some careful engineering. The air flow rates of the mechanical ventilation system are specified to ensure good indoor air quality. At the same time, the air flow...

Direct electric resistance heating

12.4.1 Electrical space and water heating Electricity is a high-level energy form (100 per cent exergy) that can provide almost all energy services, from supplying electric light, the mechanical drive of electric tools and modern information technology. For all of these activities, there is no substitute for electricity. On the other hand, there are many possible substitutes for the task of space and water heating -for example, the needed heat can be produced directly from burning fuels. From a...

Photovoltaic systems

Karsten Voss and Christian Reise 14.1.1 Concept High-performance houses need very little heat, but a considerable amount of electricity, which is all the more significant when considered in primary energy terms. In this chapter, we assume that 1 kWh of heat from natural gas requires 1.14 kWh of primary energy, while 1 kWh of electricity requires 2.35 kWh of primary energy to produce. For this reason, it is highly attractive to consider ways of producing electricity from a renewable source,...

Bus systems and transmission systems

Building control or home automation systems measure, control and manage the entire complex of building services by programmable microprocessors. Mostly, bus systems are used for these purposes. The technical term 'bus' originated from computer engineering, where various peripheral devices were connected to one computer - in other words, for networking. Today, communication bus systems are also used in automotive engineering, industrial automation and in building automation. Data can be...

Heat distribution for highperformance housing

Due to the low space heating demand of high-performance houses, heat production must be simple and with low capital costs. Producing heat collectively for many houses saves having to buy and maintain a system in each individual house. The extremely low energy demand leads to special requirements for such a district heating system. The investment costs of heat distribution piping are nearly independent of the heat demand. Therefore, the specific distribution costs increase with the sharply...

Joachim Morhenne 1121 Concept

By heating spaces with large surfaces - that is, a wall or a floor - large quantities of heat can be transferred by radiation at comfortable low temperatures. Houses with very small heat demand are ideal candidates for such heat delivery. To ensure that the heat is primarily transferred by radiation, the heating surface temperature has to be close to the room air temperature, otherwise convection quickly becomes the main path of heat transfer for normal room temperatures. Because the radiant...

Latent heat storage

Les Capsules Micronal Basf

13.2.1 The physical principle of latent storage Latent heat storage uses the principle of the change of phase of a material to absorb or release heat. When a material is heated and changes its state between a solid, liquid or gas , it will store much more heat than would occur from just 1 Kelvin temperature increase. When the material cools down and reverses back to the original state, this heat is then released. This heat of fusion is typically 80 to 100 times larger than the heat required for...