The storage rack at right features vertical supports screwed to wall studs. Cut from 2-by-4 stock, the supports buttress shopmade wood brackets, which hold up the lumber. You will need one support at each end of the rack, with an additional one every 32 inches along the wall. After bolting the supports to the studs, prepare the brackets by cutting the sides from 3A-inch plywood and the middle shelf piece from 2-by-4 stock lVz inches shorter than the brackets. Angle the top edge of the sides by about 5 so the brackets will tilt up slightly (inset) and prevent the lumber from falling off the rack. Screw the middle shelf piece to the sides, then screw the bracket to the vertical supports. A LUMBER-AND-PLYWOOD RACK Designed to accommodate both boards and plywood panels, the rack shown rests on the shop floor and attaches to joists in the ceiling. Lumber is loaded onto the rails from the end, while plywood can be stacked in the trough at the front and held in place by the hinged bar. Refer...
The medium-size shop represented below shares many of the features of the small shop (page 36 . the table saw and jointer-planer are on casters a master switch (this time near the door) controls all the machines the machines are positioned so users will see the door near the bench perforated hardboard and shelves for storage line the perimeter of the shop (supplies can also be stored under the stairs) and the lumber Lumber rack
Whether a new building will be attacked by termites depends on the surrounding area and to a large extent the builder. Certain construction practices tend to increase the probability of termite attack. (See FIG. 8-4.) Some builders have been known to bury tree stumps and wood debris near the foundation or below the basement-floor slab. All stumps and debris should be removed from the building site. All form boards and scrap lumber should be removed before the excavated area around the foundation walls is backfilled. There should be no buried wood around the house. Otherwise, it can provide a source of food for a new termite colony that when it becomes large enough, will attack the house.
Soffits and chases are easy to build. A soffit is usually constructed with 2x2 lumber, which is easy to work with and inexpensive. You can use 1 x 3s to keep the frame as small as possible and 2 x 4s for large soffits that will house other elements, such as recessed lighting fixtures Chases should be framed with 2 x 4s. Build chases with 2 x 4s, which tend to be straighter than 2 x 2s and are strong enough to withstand household accidents. Use pressure-treated lumber for bottom piates on concrete floors, attaching them with construction adhesive and powder-actuated nailer fasteners (see page 124). Cut top plates from standard lumber and na l or screw them in place Install studs to form the corners of the chase, and block in between them for stability To make the chase smaller, notch the top and bottom plates around the obstruction, and install the studs flat. If you're framing around a vertical dram pipe, leave room around the pipe for soundproofing insulation. Plastic pipes can be...
Lumber storage For maximum efficiency, lay f ut the tools in your shop so that the lumber follows a fairly direct route from rough stock to finished pieces. The diagram at left illustrates a logical work flow for a medium-size workshop. At the upper left-hand corner is the entrance where lumber is stored on racks. To the right is the stock preparation area, devoted to the table saw (or radial arm saw), jointer, and planer at this station, lumber is cut to rough length and surfaced. The heart of the next work area, near the bottom right-hand corner of the drawing, is the workbench. Radiating outward from the bench are the shop's other stationary tools in this case, a drill press, lathe, router table (or shaper), and band saw. A tool cabinet is nearby. Moving clockwise, the final work area is set aside for assembly and finishing. This station features a table for gluing up pieces and shelves for drying and storing. The spray booth is close by, but isolated from the shop by walls on...
Interior partition walls usually are built with 2x4 lumber, but in some situations it is better to frame with 2x6 lumber (photo, left) Before finishing the walls (pages 132 to 139). have the building inspector review your work. The inspector may check to see that any required plumbing and wiring changes are complete. Materials Framing lumber. 1Qd nails Framing a door opening requires straight, dry lumber, so the door unit fits evenly into the rough opening and won't bind later on Buy the door or door kit and materials first. The type of door you select will depend on practical and aesthetic considerations. Prehung interior doors, are by far the most common. Most are 32' wide, but other sizes are available. Sliding. or bypass, doors and folding doors are popular for closets. Pocket doors, which slide into an enclosure in the wall, are practical in narrow hallways and other cramped spaces Materials 2x4 lumber, prehung door unit bypass or folding door kit and doors, or pocket door and...
Materials 2' dimension lumber ' plywood. IQd natls. Bui'd a header to fit between the king studs on top of the jack studs Use two pieces of 2' dimensional lumber sandw ched around X plywood (page 212) Attach the header to the jack studs, king studs, and cripple studs, us-
To estimate the lumber needed to build a wall, calculate boards for the studs, top and sole plate, ceiling blocking, and door framing materials, if needed. Use 2x6 lumber to frame walls that must hold large plumbing pipes Where wall plates must be cut to fit pipes, use metal straps to ioin the framing members For improved soundproofing you can also fill walte with fiberglass insulation Use 2x6 lumber to frame walls that must hold large plumbing pipes Where wall plates must be cut to fit pipes, use metal straps to ioin the framing members For improved soundproofing you can also fill walte with fiberglass insulation
A carpentry project can be fun and rewarding, but it requires more than just a knack for cutting lumber and pounding nails. In fact, your natural ability with tools may not affect the finished product as much as your attention to details, materials, costs, and k cal building codes. Address these issues in the planning stages so you can use your time efficiently once you start to cut Start any project by asking yourself the questions below. Once you've addressed each question, you can feel confident about the project you re about to start
In 1978 my wife and I set out to develop this 9 acres of land we own on top of a mountain here in Vermont, to be as near as possible, self-sufficient by the time we retire. We have constructed a 65 foot tower on top of which we have put a 450 watt, 12 volt DC windmill. Also we have built, as a back-up charging unit, a 12 volt DC alternator, designed our own control panel that feeds 2 separate battery packs. We also have a commercial built AC generator which we start up approximately once a week to do our washing, vacuuming, etc. We hope very soon to add solar panels for charging these batteries also. We have pure mountain spring water, gravity fed into our home. We also built our own compost toilet and garbage disposal. We heat our place with firewood cut from our own land, in a stove we built from 2 oil barrels which utilizes a catalytic combustor. We have set out fruit and nut trees, a variety of berries, grapes and of course we grow our own garden for vegetables. Any project...
Anchor the saw to a stationary workbench, using C-clamps To support long moldings or other stock, build a pair of blocks the height of the saw table, using 1x lumber. Align the blocks with the saw fence and clamp them to the workbench. Anchor the saw to a stationary workbench, using C-clamps To support long moldings or other stock, build a pair of blocks the height of the saw table, using 1x lumber. Align the blocks with the saw fence and clamp them to the workbench.
Materials Suspended ceiling kit (wall angle. mains, tees), screw eyes, hanger wires, ceiling panels. 1x dimensional lumber 1V wallboard screws or masonry nails. Grade stamps provide valuable Information about a piece of lumber. The lumber's grade is usually indicated by the largest number stamped on the wood. Also stamped on each piece of lumber are its moisture content, species and lumber mill of origin Lumber Grading Chart Much of today s lumber s st -i fairly wet when is sold, so it's hard to predict ho it will behave as it dries But a quick inspection of each board at the lumber yard or home center win help you disqualify flawed boards Lumber that *s copped twisted, or crooked should not be used at full length However you may be able to cut out good sections for use as blocking or other short framing pieces If a board is slightly bowed, you can probably flatten it out as you nail it Cnecks wanes, and knots are cosmetic flaws that seldom affect the strength of the board The...
With only a small amount of lumber and plywood and a few minutes' time, you can make a sturdy, knock-down sawhorse like the one shown above. Cut the legs from 3 4-inch plywood, then saw a 3-inch-deep notch in the middle of the top of both pieces. Next, cut the crosspiece from l-by-6 stock and saw a 1 -inch-deep slot 8 inches in from either end to fit into the legs. Angle the slots roughly 5 from the vertical so the legs spread slightly outward. For added stability, screw 4-inch-long l-by-2 cleats to the crosspiece on each side of the slots.
Cheek lumber visually before US-ng Stored umber can wa'p from temperature and humidity changes Lumber Cheek lumber visually before US-ng Stored umber can wa'p from temperature and humidity changes Lumber for structural applications such as walls, floors and ceilings is usually milled from strong softwoods and is categorized by grade, moisture content, and dimension Grade Characteristics such as knots, splits, and gram slope affect the strength of the lumber and determine the grade (chart, opposite page) Moisture content Lumber is a-so categ by moisture content S-DRY (surfaced dry) is the designation for lumber with a moisture content of 19 percent or less S-DRY lumber is the least likely to warp or shrink and is a good choice for framing walls. S-GRN (surfaced green) means the lumber contains a moisture content of 19 percent or more Exterior lumber Lumber milled from redwood or cedar is naturally res siant to decay and insect infestation. and is a good choice for exterior...
When selecting stock, keep in mind which project parts a board might yield and whether the grain and color will match surrounding pieces. Both of these tasks prove much simpler if you have the Materials List with you. A cutting diagram helps as well. Most good lumber dealers won't rush you, so take your time to ensure you select the best stock available.
The rack shown above, made of 4-by-4 stock and steel pipe, is attached to wall studs. The steel pipes should be roughly 24 inches long and 3A inch in diameter. They can be inserted into any of the holes drilled into the vertical supports or cross-pieces, allowing lumber to be piled on the pipes or stacked on end between them. Begin by cutting the uprights to length and mark each point on them where you want to locate a cross-piece. Cut dadoes in the sides of the uprights to accommodate
Lumber sizes such as 2 x 4 are nominal dimensions, not actual dimensions. The actual size of lumber is slightly smaller than the nominal size. When it is originally milled, lumber is cut at the nominal size, however, the boards are then planed down for a smoother finish, producing the actual dimensions you buy in the store See the chart on the opposite page for nominal and actual dimensions. Treated lumber
The stand shown at right is constructed from 4-by-4 and 2-by-4 lumber and plywood. Saw the legs from 4-by-4s and the rails from 2-by-4s, sizing the pieces to suit your needs. Notch the legs at the top and 6 inches down from the top to fit the rails, then cut matching rabbets at the ends of all the rails (inset). Glue up the legs and rails, adding countersunk screws to reinforce the joints. Cut the top from Winch plywood. If you plan to place a table saw on the stand, saw a square hole out of the center of the top as shown to allow sawdust to fall through place a box underneath to catch the waste. Finally, screw the top to the legs and rails, again countersinking the fasteners. When using a tool on the stand, secure it to the top with screws or clamps.
The required size for the header is set by local building codes and varies according to the width of the rough opening. Fo' a window or door opening, a header can be built from two pieces of 2' dimensional lumber sandwiched around plywood (chart, right). When a large portion of a load-bearing wall (or an entire wall) is removed, a laminated beam product can be used to make the new header (page 187). Trusses are prefabricated webs made from 2' dimensional lumber. They are found in many houses built after 1950 Never cut through or alter roof trusses If you want to install a skylight in a house with roof trusses, buy a unit that fits in the space between the trusses. Load-bearing walls carry the structural weight of your home In platform-framed houses, load-bearing walls can be identified by douDie top plates made from two layers of framing lumber Load-bearing walls include all exterior walls and any interior walls that are aligned atx ve support beams
Still, with a bit of planning and the proper layout, even these locations can be turned to your advantage A basement can be heated and powered more easily than a garage. On the other hand, a garage has a larger door through which to move lumber and sheet materials like plywood, its air is less humid, and the din of power tools and fumes of finishing can be isolated from living spaces.
Maybe 20 feet head then plunges almost vertically for 60 feet into the creek gorge. A very steep switch back trail goes part way down the canyon, but the last 20 feet are so steep we had to build a ladder to even see if there was a spot to mount the turbine. The wood was milled on site, freehand with a chainsaw. I wish the wood I buy at the lumber yard were all as straight. Fortunately, there was a convenient little flat at a spot about 20 feet above the creek. No one remembered seeing the water that high in the wet season. We had to tie the pipe to trees to support the weight of the long vertical section and build a sturdy shed roof over the unit because our working resulted in a continual avalanche on the site. Indeed, someone often
Remove material from large areas quickly with a belt sander Disposable belts are available ranging from 36 (extra-coarse) to 100 (fine). Most belt sanding is done with the grain. However, sanding across the grain is an effective way to remove material from rough-hewn lumber. Remove material from large areas quickly with a belt sander Disposable belts are available ranging from 36 (extra-coarse) to 100 (fine). Most belt sanding is done with the grain. However, sanding across the grain is an effective way to remove material from rough-hewn lumber. When sanding the edge of a board with a belt sander. clamp it between two pieces of scrap lumber to prevent the belt sander from wobbling and rounding off the edges When sanding the edge of a board with a belt sander. clamp it between two pieces of scrap lumber to prevent the belt sander from wobbling and rounding off the edges
For the most part, powder-post beetles are usually brought into the house via the wood that had been used in its construction. Building materials might become infested while being stockpiled in the lumberyard. The insects might also be brought into the house in finished wood products such as oak flooring, paneling, and furniture. limbs of trees. When gathering wood for the fireplace, it is possible to pick up infested pieces and store them in the basement or under the stairs for later use. If wood is left in storage through the following spring and summer, the emerging beetles might attack unfinished lumber such as girders, joists, studs, sill plates, and subflooring.
Dry-wood termites are so called because they build their nest in perfectly good wood that is not decayed and not in contact with the ground. In fact, in many cases they establish a colony in the wood-framing members of the attic. As with subterranean termites, reproductive dry-wood termites swarm from the nest periodically in an attempt to establish a new colony. The swarming termites often do not fly more than a few feet before settling down. However, if aided by air currents, they can fly more than a mile. Once paired, the king and queen seek cracks or checks in nearby wood, whether a roof or lumber pile, and set up housekeeping. In homes, dry-wood termites can be found in rafters, studs, joists, sheathing, floorboards, window frames, door frames, and exterior trim.
The Cutting Diagrams found with each project shows just enough material for the pieces in the project. If your stock contains a defect or you make a wrong cut, a little extra material can save you a return trip to your lumber source. We recommend buying at least 15 percent extra for each project. Remember If you do lots of building, hardwoods are typically discounted when purchasing 100 board feet or more.
Made entirely of affordable -Vi -thick knotty pine lumber and -Vi6 -thick beaded planking, this handsome piece has a classic country look that's enhanced by such details as its pegged doorframes and antique glass. You'll find helpful hints for working with pine on page 120. And, by all means, don't try to hide the knots they're a big part of this piece's rustic appeal
When we last did comparison shopping at a home center, we found straight-grained, knot-free C and Better Select pine for about 4 per board foot. The No. 2 and Better Common cost about 1.35 per board foot for wide boards, and 1 per board foot for narrow stock. We found untreated Southern yellow pine at a lumber outlet for 3.70 per board foot. and latewood creates sanding and finishing problems. It's a good choice for outdoor projects because of its durability. However, at most home centers, it's available only as pressure-treated lumber with a green color. To find white or ponderosa pine, check your local lumber outlets to see what they carry. You might have to rely on a store that caters to woodworkers. Some home centers carry boards marked SPF. That designation means that a given board is either spruce, pine, or fir. Different species might look similar when unfinished, but they can create matching problems when you stain or apply a clear finish. For most of us, however, buying pine...
Properly stored lumber and plywood are not only kept out of the way but straight and dry, too. For most shops, this involves storing lumber in racks that hold the wood off the floor. Wood shrinks and expands according to the amount of humidity to which it is exposed. A wet floor can warp lumber and delaminate some plywoods. The lumber racks featured in this section are easy and inexpensive to build you should be able to find a suitable design and adapt it to your needs. If you have the space, you can set up an end-loading lumber rack like the one shown on page 91. Such a system is relatively easy to construct but you will need a wall twice the length of your lumber to allow for loading and unloading. If space in your shop is at a premium, consider a front-loading rack like the one shown below. If versatility is needed, examine The typical shop can stock hundreds of pounds of lumber, so it is crucial to anchor your rack firmly to at least every second wall stud or floor joist.
The tool cabinet shown above is handy for storing and organizing hand tools. Although the entire unit is portable, the drawers are removable, making it possible to carry around only the tools that are needed. Build the cabinet from either -inch plywood or solid lumber. The size of the box will depend on your needs but 40 inches high by 30 inches wide by 15 inches deep is a good starting point. Position the divider in the center of the cabinet so that the spaces on both sides of it are equal, making the drawers interchangeable. Next, build the drawers. Saw the pieces to size, using Winch plywood for the bottom orient the panels so the grain of the face veneer runs from the front of the drawer to the back. Cut the sides slightly shorter than the depth of the cabinet if you are working with lumber, to allow for wood movement. Make the drawer front Vi-inch wider and cut a rabbet along its bottom edge to conceal the bottom, and notch the top edge for a handle. Cut dadoes in the sides for...
Planes are designed for removing material from lumber when a saw would cut off too much material and sanding would remove too little A hand plane consists of a razor-sharp cutting blade, or iron, set in a steel or wood base Adjusting the blade requires some trial and error. After making an adjustment, test the plane on a scrap piece before using it on your workpiece
The cupboard above features twin doors for storing small, light tools like chisels and screwdrivers, as well as a large main compartment for bigger tools. Cut the components from inch plywood or lumber to the appropriate size, depending on the number of tools you own the cupboard shown above is 48 inches square and 5 inches deep with 3-inch-deep doors. Next, assemble the cupboard using the joinery method of your choice. A through dovetail joint is one of the strongest and most visually pleasing
Julia Butterfly Hill brought the preservation of old-growth redwood trees into the media's world spotlight two years ago after her epic, two year long tree-sit. She is founder of the Circle of Life Foundation, and the author of The Legacy of Luna. She made her stand against Pacific Lumber Co. from 180 feet (55 m) above ground in a thousand-year-old redwood tree named Luna. Her actions resulted in the preservation of Luna and the surrounding redwood trees.
The door of this storage cabinet folds down from a shop wall to become a sturdy work surface. Supported by solid lumber legs, it is an ideal work table for light-duty operations such as gluing up and assembling small carcases. For details on how to built this unit, seepage 98.
Types of chlscis include (from left to right) a framing chisel, used for rough trimming of lumber a small wood chisel, for light-duty wood carving a mortise chisel, lor framing hinge and lock mortises a mason's chisel, for cutting stone and masonry and a cold chisel, which is made of solid steel and is used for cutting through metal
Clutter is the woodworker's enduring enemy. Whether your workshop is shoehorned into the corner of the basement or spread out in a two-car garage, it no doubt accumulates things at an astonishing rate Lumber, plywood, saws, saw blades, drills, drill bits, planes, clamps, chisels, files, grinders, screwdrivers, punches, wrenches, and hammers are just a few of the hand and power tools that must be conveniently available when needed and out of the way when not. Add to these the lumber scraps, locks, hinges, screws, nails, spare parts, and containers half full of finishes all sure to be invaluable some day very soon and you may have the makings of a monumental storage problem. unused space corners, spaces under the stairs, between wall studs, below the workbench, and between the ceiling joists. Lumber and plywood are best stored on racks that prevent warping and water damage, keeping the wood out of the way and easy to reach. Shelves, drawers, and cabinets are the most convenient and...
For Its 2007 competition house, Team California, which Included students from SCU and the California College of Art and Design, worked with Teragren to develop structural bamboo I-beams. We wanted to use bamboo because of its sus-tainability, and also for Its strength, explains SCU junior Alison Kopf, project manager for Team California's 2009 entry, RefractHouse, which also uses the bamboo I-beams. Because it's stronger than traditional framing lumber, we would be able to
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