## Ir

Wiring makes up many of the elements in a circuit. Larger sizes of wire have more copper in them, and hence lower resistance. Wire size is specified by a gauge number. The lower the gauge number, the larger the diameter of the copper wire, and thereby the lower its resistance. The actual resistance per 1,000 feet of various copper wire gauges is detailed in Table 1, the Copper Wire Table. We encourage you to use only copper wire in your AE system. Aluminum wire has greater resistance (about twice for the same cross sectional area) and is virtually impossible to interconnect without higher resistance connections. If you don't think so, then try soldering an aluminum wire sometime.

From the Copper Wire Table, we can calculate the resistance of any particular piece of wire. The resistance per foot times the number of feet gives us the total resistance of a length of wire. When estimating the resistance of wiring be sure to include BOTH conductors, i.e. if an appliance is 100 feet from the battery, then the total wiring length is 200 feet (there are two wires actually, each one 100 feet long).

If we know the amount of current being consumed, the resistance per foot of any given wire gauge, and the length of the total wire in the circuit, then how do we determine the actual gauge of wire we should use? The answer is determined by exactly how much loss we find acceptable. In general, consider a 5% loss to be the maximum acceptable (2.5% is better). If we are using 12 VDC, then 5% voltage loss is 0.6 volts (2.5% is 0.3 volts). Consider the following equation to specify exactly which wire gauge to use for any given application.

R = Resistance expressed in Ohms (W) per 1000 feet. E = Maximum allowable voltage loss in the wiring, in Volts. I = Amount of current flowing through the circuit, in Amperes. L = The length of wire in the complete circuit, in feet.

This equation gives us a value in Ohms per 1,000 feet. Simply find the copper wire gauge size that has LESS than this amount of resistance per 1,000 feet, and you've found your wire gauge size.

Consider a PV array that produces 12 amperes. This array is located 100 feet from the batteries. What gauge size of wire should be used to keep the voltage loss in the wiring to less than 0.6 volts? Well, there is 200 feet (two conductors, remember) of wire in the circuit, and a current of 12 amperes flowing. The equation above gives us a maximum resistance of the wire as 0.25W per 1,000 feet. By consulting the Copper Wire Table, we find that 4 gauge wire has a resistance of 0.2485W per 1,000 feet. Since this is less than the 0.25W/1,000 ft. the equation generated, 4 gauge wire is the

 RESISTANCE DIAMETER WIRE GAUGE OHMS PER 1000 FEET FEET/ OHM OHMS/ KM. METERS PER W MILS MM. 0000 0.04091 20400 0.1608 6219 460.0 11.68 000 0.06180 16180 0.2028 4932 409.6 10.40 00 0.07793 12830 0.2557 3911 364.8 9.266 0 0.09827 10180 0.3224 3102 324.9 8.252 2 0.1563 6400 0.5127 1951 257.6 6.544 4 0.2485 4025 0.8152 1227 204.3 5.189 6 0.3951 2531 1.296 771.5 163.0 4.115 8 0.6282 1592 2.061 485.2 128.5 3.264 10 0.9989 1001 3.277 305.1 101.9 2.588 12 1.588 629.6 5.211 191.9 80.81 2.053 14 2.525 396.0 8.285 120.7 64.08 1.628 16 4.016 249.0 13.17 75.90 50.82 1.291 18 6.385 156.6 20.95 47.74 40.30 1.024 20 10.15 98.50 33.31 30.02 31.96 0.8118 22 16.14 61.95 52.96 18.88 25.35 0.6438 24 25.67 38.96 84.21 11.87 20.10
0 0