Fluting Components other than Tools

Fluting of locomotive connecting rods and coupling rods is an operation very similar to keyway cutting so far as the removal of metal is concerned, but the length of the flutes is usually greater, and the length of the pieces demands some well arranged holding methods. One occasionally sees rods which have been fluted with an endmill by the same method as shown in Fig. 24, giving rounded end flutes like a feather keyway. This is entirely wrong, no full size rods were fluted this way. They have...

Preface

In the engineering industry the vertical miller is very widely used, not only for batch production, but also for tool making and the 'one-off' jobs which are so common in general engineering. In the home workshop, where most jobs are 'one-off' the versatility of the machine makes it an important companion to the lathe. This book describes many of the infinitely wide range of operations which can be done, and all those described are illustrated by photographs so that understanding of the methods...

Boring

It is not uncommon to have bore holes in components which are much too large to swing around in the lathes that are found in most home workshops. But there is no need in many cases to resort to hand tools, even for holes where great accuracy is not needed. The vertical miller can be used for boring (with a trepanning tool in a boring head) such things as fire-hole doors in boiler plates, bosses on castings such as long levers, and many other objects. In order to motorise a shaper I had to bore...

Dividing Heads and Gearcutting

The availability of a dividing head is again essential for doing gearcutting on the milling machine. Of course there are types of gears one just cannot do, but ordinary spur gears can be done perfectly well for model engineering purposes, where neither high speeds, extreme silence, nor high rates of power transmission are demanded. The design of gears Is a subject outside the scope of this book, which is intended to deal with workshop operations, but there are plenty of sources of information...

Dividing Heads and Graduated Scales

In the construction of small machine tools and accessories it is often desirable to have graduated scales for the convenience of precise measurements, and the cylindrical micrometer dial is undoubtedly the commonest type. Depending on the number of graduations required the engraving or cutting of the lines can be done with either a simple head or the worm geared type. There is a choice between using a non-rotating cutter of the planing or slotting type, and using a rotating cutter like those...

Dividing Heads and Tool Making

There are many occasions in tool making when dividing is necessary. Multiple edged cutting tools like taps, reamers, milling cutters, countersinks, etc. all really need dividing devices to produce the best results, even though some of the simple cutters can well be made by filing or freehand grinding. However, the form of the teeth or flutes sometimes settles that rough and ready methods just will not do, and as in the next example the physical difficulty of getting at the metal that has to be...

Jig Boring

The term 'jig-boring' is likely to be unfamiliar to many readers of this book, and they may think that whatever it means it must be a long way removed from model engineering. This is not so, for in model making plenty of operations arise that can be done by 'jig-boring' to advantage. Basically it only means fixing a component to the machine table and then using the table screws as measuring devices to position the spindle over any part of the component that is desired before drilling or boring...

Cutter Speeds for Vertical Milling

In general I am afraid model engineers do not have very clear ideas about how fast they should run their lathes, drills or milling machines. To run too slowly extends the working time unnecessarily, but to run too fast will soon blunt a cutter and may also cause poor work finish through chatter. The wear on milling cutters (apart from flycutters) is quite important because of the trouble of sharpening them, and broken cutters can be quite an expense. The principles which govern the speeds of...

In The Home Workshop

Argus Books Argus House Boundary Way Hemel Hempstead Hertfordshire HP2 7ST England First published 1977 Second impression 1979 Second edition 1984 Reprinted 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1993 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form by print, photography, microfilm or any other means without written permission from the publisher. Phototypesetting by Performance Typesetting, Milton Keynes Printed and bound in Great Britain by Biddies Ltd, Guildford and...

Workholding with Difficult Shapes

Problems do arise from time to time regarding the methods of holding work in the milling machine. In full scale engineering these problems are not nearly so acute as components are more solid and clamps can be applied without crushing the pieces. Often with model parts it is difficult to get a hold sufficiently firmly without more or less mutilating the piece. One method I often use both for castings and bar material is to arrange for an accurate chucking piece to be left on the component until...

Index

Abwood milling attachment 12 Amolco milling attachment and Angleplates 80 Angleplate used as backstop 27,29 Arbors for slitting saws and disc cutters 35 Chucks, Clare, Clarkson, Osborn 82 Crosshead slides, engine bedplate 30 principle 54 Plain type, change wheel Packing block for centre height 57 Steady stand for extra rigidity 56 Dividing heads and gear-cutting 62 Cutting engraving flat arcuate scale D-bit for hole centring to start drills Direction of table rotation 52 Locking precautions for...

Slitting and Cutting

It is common practice to design machinery components with split bosses which can be contracted with a screw for tightening purposes. The slitting can be done with a hacksaw, but if done in unskilful fashion will not look good when completed. Slitting saws and many other disc type cutters can be readily used on the vertical miller by mounting them on a Morse taper arbor having a parallel portion for the cutter, and a nut to secure it. Its a good thing to put a pair of flats on the arbor to hold...

Milling Flat Surfaces

Of all metal-working operations the production of true flat surfaces is perhaps one of the most difficult if reliance has to be placed on hand tools and hand methods, for it depends just about completely on the personal skill of the workman. But a point offset from the spindle centre of a vertical milling machine must when rotated describe a flat plane in space if there is no axial movement. Therefore, provided the spindle is truly square to the table, an offset cutting tool must generate a...

Evolution of the Vertical Miller

Drummond Lathe Mods

The horizontal milling machine evolved naturally from the lathe in the first or second decade of the nineteenth century. Eli Whitney (U.S.A.) is said to have had one in use about 1818, and in Tools for the Job the late L.T.C. Rolt recounted how the young engineer James Nasmyth (later to become famous as the inventor of the steam hammer and other appliances) fixed one up and milled the flats on hundreds of tiny hexagon nuts for a model of a Maudslay marine engine, while working for Henry...

End Rounding

In model work, as in full sized machinery, many components such as crank webs, connecting and coupling rods, machine links, etc. have to have rounded ends. These can be produced by filing, and the use of hardenerd steel collars and rollers for guides has often been recommended in Model Engineer to help the not-so- good filer to achieve a good appearance. Even with these, this kind of filing demands a skill which many modellers just do not have (and will never acquire, for want of practice, if...

Dividing Heads

Myford Dividing Head Attachment Pics

For many products the use of a dividing head is an absolute necessity. Many home workers, especially those without any engineering experience, regard them as most mysterious devices, almost bordering on the occult, and say without really thinking, 'Oh. I could never use one of those '. Well, a dividing head is really no more than a headstock with a spindle on which the work is mounted, with some means of turning it through positive angular amounts, and holding it there when each movement has...

Keyway Cutting

Feather Key Operation

Keys and keyways are a very common feature of machinery and naturally of models too. The common round-ended keyway, for a feather' key, is easily produced on a parallel shaft by holding the shaft in the vice and using a small endmill, or two-flute 'slot-drill'. Fig. 24 shows the setup for this operation. Various parts of car and motor cycle engines, gearboxes, and other machinery components in the past have had wheels mounted on tapered shafts with the keyways following the slope of the taper....

Milling Chucks for Safe Cutter Holding

Dore Westbury

The newcomer to vertical milling may wonder why there should be any need for special chucks for milling cutters, and especially when he sees that these are fairly expensive accessories, may be tempted to make do without one. But first of all it is necessary to realise that the forces acting upon milling cutters in use are generally quite different from those acting on drills in a drilling machine or lathe. The drill is usually subjected, except at the moment of complete penetration, to axial...

List of Illustrations

1 Abwood milling attachment of the 1920s 13 2 E. T. Westbury's milling machine 14 3 Dore-Westbury machine 15 4 Dore-Westbury Mk II machine 16 14 Set of three flycutters 28 15 Flycutting a bracket 28 1 6 Flycutting connecting rod ends 29 17 Flycutting tapered bar material 29 18 Flycutting cylinder soleplate 30 20 Milling flywheel joint face 31 21 Milling crosshead slide 32 22 Milling bearing jaws in bedplate 33 23 Slitting boss of casting 35 24 Milling feather keyway 37 25 Milling feather keyway...