Anatomy Details

Tedswoodworking Plans

16.000 Woodworking Plans

Get Instant Access

Many remodeling projects, like adding new doors o< windows, require that you remove one or more studs tn a load-bearing wall to create an opening When planning your project, remember that new openings require a permanent support beam called a header, above the removed studs, to carry the structural load directly

The required size for the header is set by local building codes and varies according to the width of the rough opening. Fo' a window or door opening, a header can be built from two pieces of 2' dimensional lumber sandwiched around plywood (chart, right). When a large portion of a load-bearing wall (or an entire wall) is removed, a laminated beam product can be used to make the new header (page 187).

If you will be removing more than one wall stud, make temporary supports to carry the structural load until the header is installed

Recommended Header Sizes

Rough

Recommended

Opening

Header

Width

Construction

Up to 3 ft

'' plywood between two 2 x 4s

3 ft to 5 ft

fr plywood between two 2 x 6s

5ft to7ft.

plywood between two 2 x 8s

7 ft. to 8 ft.

Vt plywood between two 2 x 10s

Recommended header sizes shown above are suitable for projects where a full story and roof are located above the rough opening Th*s chart is m tended for rough estimates only. For actual requirements. contact an architect or your local building inspector For spans greater than 8 ft see page 187

Window opening: The structural load above the window is carried by cripple studs resting on a header. The ends of the header are supported by jack studs and king studs, which transfer the load to the sole plate and the foundation of the house. The rough sill, which helps anchor the window unit but carries no structural weight, is supported by cripple studs To provide room for adjustments during installation. the rough opening for a window should be V wider and '/' taller than the window unit, including the jambs

Rooms House

Top plate

King stud

Cripple stud

Sole plate

Top plate

King stud

Cripple stud

Sole plate

Framing Options for Window & Door Openings (new dumber shown m y^aow)

Framing Options for Window & Door Openings (new dumber shown m y^aow)

Infill Existing Window Opening Detail

Enlarging an existing opening simplifies the framing. In many cases, you can use an existing king stud and jack siud to form one side of the new opening.

Framing a new opening is the only solution when you're installing a window or door where none existed or when you're replacing a unit with one that is much larger.

Using an existing opening avoids the need for new framing. This is a good option in homes with masonry exteriors, which are difficult to alter. Order a replacement unit that is V narrower and W shorter than the rough opening

Enlarging an existing opening simplifies the framing. In many cases, you can use an existing king stud and jack siud to form one side of the new opening.

Framing a new opening is the only solution when you're installing a window or door where none existed or when you're replacing a unit with one that is much larger.

Floor & Ceiling Anatomy

Sister Wall Stud Repair
Floor shown cut away for clarity

Joists carry the structural load of floors and ceilings. The ends of the joists rest on support beams, foundations. or load-bearing walls Rooms used as living areas must be supported by floor joists that are at least 2x8 in size. Floors with smaller joists can be reinforced with stster joists (photos, below).

Load Bearing Wall

Floors with 2x6 joists, ike those sometimes found in attics, cannot support living areas unless a sister jo*st «s attached alongside each original jcxst to strengthen it (above, left) This often is necessary when an attic is convened to a living area Sister joists also are used to help support a header when ceiling joists must to cut. such as when framing a skylight shaft (above, right).

Floors with 2x6 joists, ike those sometimes found in attics, cannot support living areas unless a sister jo*st «s attached alongside each original jcxst to strengthen it (above, left) This often is necessary when an attic is convened to a living area Sister joists also are used to help support a header when ceiling joists must to cut. such as when framing a skylight shaft (above, right).

How Install Joists Attic

Roof Anatomy

Sky Lihte Roof

Rafters made from 2 x 4s or 2 x 6s spaced every 16* or 24" are used to support roofs in most houses built before 1950 If necessary rafters can be cut to make room for a large skylight. Check tn your attic to determine if your roof is framed with rafters or roof trusses (nght).

Trusses are prefabricated "webs" made from 2' dimensional lumber. They are found in many houses built after 1950 Never cut through or alter roof trusses If you want to install a skylight in a house with roof trusses, buy a unit that fits in the space between the trusses.

Wall Anatomy

Exterior Stud Wall Anatomy

Wall studs

Oouble top plate

Oouble top plate

Single Load Bearing Wall Raise Ceiling

Partition walls are interior walls that do not carry structural weight of the house. They have a single top plate and can be perpendicular to the floor and ceiling joists but are not aligned above support beams. Any interior wall that is parallel to floor and ceiling joists is a partition wall.

Load-bearing walls carry the structural weight of your home In platform-framed houses, load-bearing walls can be identified by douDie top plates made from two layers of framing lumber Load-bearing walls include all exterior walls and any interior walls that are aligned atx>ve support beams

Cutaway view

Prehung Exterior Doors Anatomy

Was this article helpful?

0 0
The Complete Guide To Wood Finishing

The Complete Guide To Wood Finishing

Wood finishing can be tricky and after spending hours on building your project you want to be sure that you get the best outcome possible. In The Complete Guide To Wood Finishing you will learn how to get beautiful, professional results no matter what your project is, even if you have never tried your hand at wood finishing before. You will learn about every step in the wood finishing process from a professional wood finisher with years of experience.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • daphne padovano
    How make ceiling joist load bearing?
    3 years ago
  • kirstin
    How to support ceiling joists?
    2 years ago

Post a comment