Chisels

A wood chisel consists of a sharp steel blade beveled on at least one side and set in a wood or plastic handle It cuts with light hand pressure, or when the end of the handle is tapped with a mallet A wood chisel is often used to cut hinge and lock mortises. When creating deep cuts, make several shallow cuts instead of one deep cut. Forcing a chisel to make deep cuts only dulls the tool, and can damage the workp-rece. Sharpen the blades of your chisels often, using a sharpening stone Chisels...

Enlarging Openings Removing Walls

Many carpentry projects actually begin with demolition When you're remodeling, it's often necessary to cut or enlarge openings for new doors or windows, or even to remove entire walls The basic procedures for this type of demolition are the same whether you're working with doors and windows on exterior walls or altering interior walls Your first step will be to determine how your house was framed (pages 102 and 103). House framing variations will dictate the proper procedures for creating...

How to Apply Enamel Paint

Twist anchor Galvanized Lag screw screw deck screw Twist anchor Galvanized Lag screw screw deck screw HMow Flat-head Wallboard Hex-head screw Phillips screw shcct-mct.i The advent of the screwgun and numerous types of driver bits for drills have made screws a mainstay of the carpentry trade. With literally hundreds of different screws and types of fasten ing hardware available there is a specific screw for a most every job. But for most carpentry jobs you will only need to consider a few...

How to Build Solid Hardwood Edges

Laminate top of countertop before attaching edge strip. Attach the edge strip flush with the surface of laminate, using carpenter's glue and finish nails (page opposite) Mold top and bottom edges of strip with router and edging bit. A desired. Stem and finish wood as desired. 3 Sand edge strips flush with top surface of countertop. using a belt sander and 12-grit sandpaper ICut t x 2 hardwood strips to fit edges of countertop. Sand strips smooth. Miter-cut inside and outside corners. 2 Attach...

How to Chisel a Mortise

ICut the outline of the mortise Hold the chcsei bevel-s*de-in and tap the butt end lightly with a mallet until the cut has reached the proper depth 2 Make a series of parallel depth cuts tf* apart across the mortise. with the ch sel held at a 45 angle. Drive the chisel with light maiiet blows to the handle 3 Pry out waste chips by holding the chisel at a tow angle with the beveled side toward the work surface. Drive the chisel using light hand pressure Use a sander lo remove unwanted materia...

How to Install Wainscoting at Outside Corners

ICut a pair of boards to the w> dths indicated m the calculations you developed during the planning process. 3 Position a pfece of corner trim and nail rt in place, using 6d finish nails Install the remaining boards (opposite, steps 5 and 6) 2 Position the boards at the corner. butting them to create a plumb corner Facenail the boards in place, then nail the joint, using 6d finish nails. Drive the na ls to within Jf of the face of the ooards. then finish with a nail set

How to Make a Cutout

ITost the receptacle (inset) to make sure the power is off Then, unscrew and remove the receptacle from the box Coat the edges of the eiectricai box with bright colored chalk 2 Press the back of the board that will be installed over the receptacle directly against the electrical box. to create a cutting outline. 3 Lay the board face-down and drill a large pilot hole near one comer of the outline Use a jig saw fitted with a fine-tooth woodcutting blade to make the cutout Be careful not to cut...

How to Make Scarf Joints

Mark a cutting line along the too edge o- base boards to indicate the starting point and direction 'or each cut Baseboards and moldings that run the length of a wall aro cut by standing tne stock against the saw fence Mark a cutting line along the too edge o- base boards to indicate the starting point and direction 'or each cut Baseboards and moldings that run the length of a wall aro cut by standing tne stock against the saw fence Join molding pieces for longer spans by rnitering the ends at...

How to Prepare for a Wainscoting Project continued

Comers Install any outside corners (A) first, working your way toward the mside corners. In sections of a room that have no outside corners, start at the mside corners (B). and work your way toward the door and window casings Calculate the number of boards required for each wall using the measurements on the drawing you created earlier (length oi wall - width of one plank). When making this calculation. remember that the tongues are removed from the comer boards If the total number of boards...

How to Pull Nails with a Hammer

Remove stubborn nails by placing a btock or wood under the hammer head for added -overage To avoid damago to the workpiece use a block big enough to evenly distribute pressure from the ham-mer head Remove stubborn nails by placing a btock or wood under the hammer head for added -overage To avoid damago to the workpiece use a block big enough to evenly distribute pressure from the ham-mer head A new hammer Tiay nave a very smooth face that tends to slip off the heads of nails Rough up the face w...

How to Remove Doors Windows

2 For double-hung windows with sash weights, remove the weights by cutting the cords and pulling the weights from the pockets. 3 Cut through the nails holding the window and door frames to the framing members, using a reciprocating saw. 4 Pry the brick moldings free from the framing members, using a pry bar. 5 Pull the unit from the rough openmg. using a pry bar. and remove it completely. Variation For windows and doors attached with nailing fins, cut or pry loose the siding matenal or brick...

How to Select the Right Materials for a Project

Picking the right wood for a project is a decision that will affect the durability and attractiveness of the final product. Some woods are more prone to warping than others, some are more resistant to decay, and some are superior when it comes to holding a coat of paint Matching styles and wood varieties will help to create a common theme throughout your home. Lumber sizes such as 2 x 4 are nominal dimensions, not actual dimensions. The actual size of lumber is slightly smaller than the nominal...

Installing Tongueandgroove Wainscoting

Wainscoting refers to virtually any specialized treatment of the lower three to four feet of interior wails The form demonstrated here, using tongue-and-groove boards, first gamed popularity in the early twentieth century Recently, it has re-emerged as a way to dress up a room Typical tongue-and-groove boards for wainscoting are made of pine, fir. or other softwoods and measure V. to YS thick Each board has a tongue on one edge, a groove on the other, and usually a decorative bevel or bead on...

Planes

Planes are designed for removing material from lumber when a saw would cut off too much material and sanding would remove too little A hand plane consists of a razor-sharp cutting blade, or iron, set in a steel or wood base Adjusting the blade requires some trial and error. After making an adjustment, test the plane on a scrap piece before using it on your workpiece The blade on a surface forming rasp can t be adjusted, but interchangeable blades are available for fine and rough work Surface...

Preparing the Work Area

Most carpentry projects share the same basic preparation techniques and follow a similar sequence. Start by checking for' hidden mechanicals in the work area and shutting off and rerouting electrical wiring, plumbing pipes, and other utility lines If you are not comfortable performing these tasks, hire a professional. Test all electrical outlets before beginning any demolition of walls, ceilings, or floors Shovel all demolition debris away from the work area. Clear away the debris whenever...

Removing Doors Windows

If your remodeling project requires removing o< d doors and windows, do not start this work until all preparation work is finished and the interior v ali surfaces and trim have been removed You will need to dose up the wall openings as soon as possible, so make sure you have all the necessary tools, framing lumber, and new window or door units before start ng the final stages of demotion Be prepared to finish the work as quickly as possible Doors and windows are removed using the same basic...

Removing Interior Walls

Removing an existing wall is an easy way to create more usabie space without the expense of building an addition. Removing a wall turns two small rooms into a large space perfect for family living. Adding new walls in a larger area creates a private space to use as a quiet study or as a new bedroom for a growing family The techniques for removing a wall vary, depending on the location and structural function of the wall (see pages 102 to 107). In addition to defining living areas and supporting...

Removing Plaster

Plaster removal is a dusty job. so always wear eye protection and a particle mask during demolition. and jse sheets of plastic to protect fur-nituro ano o ty.ock open doorways. Plaster walls are very brittle, so work carefully to avoid cracking the plaster in areas that will not be removed. it the materia being removed encompasses most of the wall surface, consider removing the whole < nterio' surface of the wall. Replacing the entire wall with wailboard is easier and produces better res Jts...

Sawhorses

Fold metal sawhorses and hang them on the workshop wall when they are not in use Buy brackets made from fiberglass or metal. ' cut a 48-inch top rail and four 26' legs Irom 2 x 4s. Disassemble sawhorses for storage. Fold metal sawhorses and hang them on the workshop wall when they are not in use Buy brackets made from fiberglass or metal. ' cut a 48-inch top rail and four 26' legs Irom 2 x 4s. Disassemble sawhorses for storage.

Tips for Installing Frenchstyle Patio Doors

Provide extra support for door hinges by replacing the center mounting screw on each hinge with a 3' wood screw These long screws extend through the side jamos and deep nto tne framing members Keep a uniform K gap between the door, side jambs, and top jamb to ensure that the door will swing freely without binding Check this gap frequently as you shim around the door unit.

Tips for Using a Table

Use a roller stand to hold long pieces of stock at the proper height wtien cutting them on a table saw. A roller stand allows you to slide the material into the cutting blade without letting the workpiece fall to the floor Learn what the parts and accessories of a table saw do before operat ing one This portable table saw includes blade guard rip fence for align.ng the cutting line on the workpiece with the blade Wade height adjuster and bevel angle scale, on off switch, bevel adjuster, and...

Screwdrivers

Every carpenter should own several Phillips and slotted screwdrivers Even though the drill-mounted screw bit has become the standard for large projects, screwdrivers are still essential for a variety of carpentry tasks. Look for quality screwdrivers with hardened-steel blades and handles that are easy to grip Other features to look for include insulated handles to protect agamst electrical shock and oxide-coated tips for a strong hold on screw heads. For working in tight spots, a screwdriver...

Tips or Installing Sliding Doors

Adjust the bottom rollers after installation is complete Remove the coverplate on the adjusting screw, found on the inside edge of the bottom rail. Turn the screw in small increments until the door rolls smoothly along the track without binding when it rs opened and closed. Remove heavy, glass panels f you must install the door without help. Reinstall the panels after the frame has been placed in the rough opening and nailed at opposite comers. To remove and install the panels, remove the stop...

Workshop Basics

Whether your workshop is in a basement utility room, a shed, or a garage it should be a comfortable place to work and should provide convenient space for organizing your tools and equipment Your workshop should include a generous benchtop at a comfortable height, plenty of well-directed lighting, and ample floor space to operate a table saw or other stationary power tools If you plan to store paints or solvents. make sure the room has plenty of ventilation and is equipped with a smoke detector...

Clamps

Vises and clamps are used to hold workpieces in place during cutting or other tasks, and to hold pieces together while glue sets Your workbench should include a heavy-duty carpenter's vise. For specialty clamping jobs, a v ide variety of clamps are available, including C-clamps, locking pliers, handscrews, web clamps, or ratchet-type clamps For clamping wide stock, use pipe clamps or bar clamps (opposite page) The jaws of pipe clamps are connected by a steel pipe. The distance between the jaws...

How to Cut Extrawide Boards

Release tne trigger and let the blade come to a full stop, then ra> se the saw arm 2 Turn the workpiece over and carefully align the first cut with the saw Wade Make a second downward cut to finish the job simplifies cutting wide stock. Loosen the carriage clamp and pull out the carriage then turn on the saw, lower the blade and push the carriaae n to cut the stock IMark cutting lines on each piece ot motding or other material you plan to cut On window and door...

How to Install a Window continued

H H Place pairs of sh ms to-I I gether to form flat shims From inside, insert shims into the gaps between the jambs and framing members, spaced every 12* On round-top windows, also shim between the angled braces and curved jamb H O Adjust the shims so they are I m snug, but not so tight that they cause the jambs to bow On multiple-unit windows, make sure the shims under the mull posts are tight. f Q Use a straightedge to check I O the side jambs to make sure they do not bow If necessary, adjust...

How to Set Up a Plunge Router

1 Unplug the router and insert the desired b t into the collet until it reaches the bottom of the shaft Then, slide the bit out approximately A so the col set does not become damaged as the bit expands. 3 Plunge the router down until the tip of the bit touches the workpiece. Lock the plunge lever. With the control bar resting on the router base, slide the depth indicator to 0 on the bit depth scale. Raise the control bar until the indicator is aligned with the desired depth on the scale, and...

How to Install a Prehung Interior Door

1 Slide the door unit into the framed opening so the edges of the jambs are flush with the wall surface and the hinge-side jamb is plumb. 2 Insert pairs of wood shims driven from opposite d Sections nto the space between the framing members and the hinge-side jamb, spaced every 12* Check the hmge-side jamb to make sure it is still plumb and does not bow. 3 Anchor the hinge-side jamb with 8d casmg nails driven through the jamb and shims and mto the jack stud 4 Insert pairs of shims in the space...

Selecting Maintaining Circular Saw Blades

To get full use out of your circular saw. you'll need an assortment of blades. Your collection should include at least one carbide-tipped combination blade and a panel blade for cutting plywood Buy additional blades based on the type of cutting you plan to do A panel blade has small teeth designed to cut through plywood and other veneer panels without chipping them A hollow-ground planer blade has a tapered surface that reduces friction for smoother cuts in fine woodworking. A carbide-tipped...

Jig Saws

The jig saw is a very good portable power tool for cutting curves. The cutting capacity of a jig saw depends on its power and the length of its blade stroke. Choose a saw rated to cut 2Mhick softwood and thick hardwood stock Many jig saws have a pivoting baseplate that can be locked so you can make bevel cuts as well A variable-speed jig saw is the best choice, because different blade styles require different cutting speeds for best results. In general, faster blade speeds are used for cutting...

Finishing Walls Ceilings

The first step in finishing walls and ceilings is deciding what types of materials you will use. This decision influences the order in which you complete the project Wallboard (pages 132 to 139) is probably the most popular finishing material because it is economical and holds paint and other wallcoverings well. When installed in the proper thickness. wallboard also serves as a firestop or a soundproofing device When finishing a ceiling, especially in a basement. take into consideration that...

Parts List Understairs Work Center

Shelves and cleats, made from plywood and i x 2 strips, are beveled so they fit flush against the understairs cover. The shelf edging strips are cut from oak t x 2. and mitered at the same angle as the shelves. The side panels for the short cabinet (left), made from plywood, differ in size A line connecting the tops of the two panels should follow the slope Ime of the staircase. The side panels for the ma n cabinets (right), are also made from > 5' plywood, and have dadoes for the cabinet...

How to Set the Blade Depth

IThe blade on a circular saw does not move when you set the blade depth. Instead, on most circular saws, the saw baseplate pivots up and down, changing the amount of blade that is exposed. Unplug the saw. then pull out the depth adjustment lever and slide it up or down to adjust the blade depth 2 Pull up on the blade guard lever to expose the blade, then position the blade flush with the edge of the workpiece to check the setting The blade should extend beyond the bottom of the workpiece by no...

Installing a Suspended Ceiling

A suspended ceiling is a grid framework made of lightweight metal brackets hung on wires attached to an existing ceiling or joists. The frame consists of T-shaped main beams (mams) and cross-tees (tees), and L-shaped wall angles The grid openings are filled with ceiling panels that rest on the flanges of the framing pieces Ceiling panels come in 2 x 2 ft. or 2 x 4 ft. sections. They are available in a variety of styles, such as insulated panels and acoustical tiles Installing a suspended...

Installing an Entry Door

Prehung entry doors come in many styles, but all are installed using the same basic methods Because entry doors are very heavy some large units weigh several hundred pounds make sure you have help before beginning installation. To speed your work, do the indoor surface removal (pages 17 to 175) and framing work (pages 193 to 197) in advance Before installing the door, make sure you have all the necessary hardware Protect the door against the weather by painting or staining it and by adding a...

Tips for Removing Trim

Work a pry bar or putty knife underneath and peel off the v*nyi Remove baseboards and base shoe moldings with a pry bar Protect wa surfaces with scraps of wood. Remove vinyl base trim. Work a pry bar or putty knife underneath and peel off the v*nyi Remove baseboards and base shoe moldings with a pry bar Protect wa surfaces with scraps of wood. Remove valances. Some are attached to cabinets or soffits with screws Others are nailed and must be pried loose 5 Measure up...

Removing Trim Old Cabinets

Trim and o d cabmetry are almost always reusable, so use care when removing them. Old cabinets can create extra storage space in basements. garages, laundry rooms, and workshops. Trim pieces should also be saved for later use. especially those with unusual profiles that may no longer be available. Your house may use similar trim in other rooms, and having some extra lengths on hand will make it easier to replace damaged sections. Tools Pry bar or putty knife, drill with driver bits...

How to Estimate Nail Quantities

Estimate the number of nails you'll need for a project then use the chart to determine approximately how many pounds of nails to purchaso. not listed are less com- js Coated 527 387 293 223 153 111 81 64 52 mon although they may be available through Finish 1350 880 630 535 288 ' 96 124 113 93 39 some manufacturers. Masonry 155 138 100 78 64 48 43 34 < 4 Q Measure and cut t x 2 rails to fit between the I 51 stiles, so they cover the cabinet shelf edges and are flush with the shelf tops. Attach...

How to Install a Patio Door

Door Striker Shims

1 Prepare the work area and remove the interior wall surfaces pages 172 ana 173). then frame the rough opening for the pat door (pages 192 and 193). Remove the exteror surfaces inside the framed opening (pages 176 and 177) 2 Test-fit the door unit, centering it in the rough opening Check to make sure door is plumb If necessary, shim under the lower side jamb until the door is plumb and leveJ Have a helper hold the door in place while you adjust it. 3 Trace the outline of the brick molding onto...

How to Use a Rafter Square

Edge of a board, lock the blade at the desired measurement, then hoW the tip of the pencil along the edge of the blade as you slide the tool along the work piece. This is useful when marking reveal lines on window and door jambs (pages 152 to 155) blade of a square flush with the end of the workpiece and the handle flush with one edge. If the end is a true 90 . there will not be a gap between the blade and the workpiece To mark angle cuts, position the rafter square's pivot point against the...

How to Support Platform Framing with Hydraulic Jacks Joists Perpendicular to Wall

1 Measure the width of the planned rough opening and add 4 feet so the temporary support will reach wen past the rough opening. Cut three 2 x 4s to length Nail two of the 2 x 4s together with tOd nails to make a top plate for the temporary support the remaining 2x4 will oe the sole plate. Place the temporary sote plate on the floor. 3 ft from the wall, centering it on the planned rough opening. 2 Set the hydraulic jacks on the temporary sole plate. 2 ft m from the ends (Use three jacks if the...

How to Cut Dadoes

ITo cut dadoes with a circular saw set the blade depth to * the des red depth of the dado, and mark the outside edges where you want the dado. Secure the workpiece win a clamp and cut the outside lines using a straightedge. Make several parallel passes between the outside cuts, every 2 Clean out the matenal between the cuts with a wood ch sc'r To avo> d gouging the workpeece apply hand pressure or tap the chisel with the bevel s de up with a mallet. For more information on chisels see page 85...

How to Select the Proper Sandpaper for the

Use 60-grft coarse sandpaper on hardwood flooring and to grind down badly scratched surfaces. Move sander across the gram for quickest removal. Use 100-grlt coarse sandpaper for initial smoothing of wood Move the sander in the direction of the wood gram to ach> eve the smoothest surface. Use 60-grft coarse sandpaper on hardwood flooring and to grind down badly scratched surfaces. Move sander across the gram for quickest removal. Use 100-grlt coarse sandpaper for initial smoothing of wood Move...

Sanders

Power sanding tools shape and smooth wood and other building materials in preparation for painting and finishing Carpenters also use them for removing small amounts of material Finish sanders (opposite page, top) are best for light to medium sanding and for achieving very smooth surfaces. Belt sanders (opposite page, bottom left) are suitable for most work involving rough, fast removal of material For very small, intricate, or contoured areas, sand by hand with folded sandpaper or a sanding...

Hammers

Waffle Head Chisel

Selecting the right hammer for a task depends mainly on finding one that feels comfortable and manageable, but that also has enough weight to get the job done. For general carpentry. choose a hammer with a smooth finish, a high-carbon steel head and a quality handle made of hickory, fiberglass, or solid steel Less expensive steel handles often have hollow cores that are not as efficient at transmitting force to the head For light-duty nailing, a 16-ounce. curved-claw finish hammer is a popular...

Plywood Sheet Goods

There are many different types of sheet goods, but plywood is the most widely used. Plywood is an extremely versatile sheet material that is made up of thinly sliced layers or plies of wood. Plywood is available in thicknesses ranging from > '. 'to V and is graded A through D. depending on the quality of the wood in its outer plies. It is also graded for interior cr exterior usage. Classifications for plywood are based on the wood species used for the face and back veneers. Group 1 species...

How to Frame a Door Opening Balloon Framing

Balloon Frame Wall

IRer -,ve tfi- intenor wall surfaces (pages 172 to 175) Select two existing studs to use as king studs The distance between seicctcd studs must bo at least 3* wider than the planned rough opening. Measuring from the floor, mark the rough opening height on a king stud. 2 Deter mine the neader sze (pages 104 and 105) and measure and mark where the top of it will fit against a king stud Use a level to extend the l no across the studs to the opposite king stud 3 Use a reciprocating saw to cut open...

How to Change a Table Saw Blade

Table Saw Turning

1 Unplug the table saw Remove the blade guard and the table insert, then turn the blade height adjustment knob clockwise to raise the blade to its maximum he*ght 2 Wearing gloves, hold the biade stationary with a piece of scrap wood Loosen and remove the arbor nut by turning it clockwise. (An arbor wrench is supplied with most saws). Use a straddlestick for added safety when cutt ng boards. A straddiest ck is a pushstick that fits over the top of the rip fence Straddlesticks and push-sticks can...

Description

Used in framing of walls, ceiimgs, floors, and ratters structural fin-ish-ng. exterior decking, lancing and stairs Low-grade dimensional lumber used to level uneven surfaces or framing, create an 31 space or prepare surfaces for installing fin * materials Tonguo-and- Boards used in < va iscoting and groove full-length paneling ol walls and paneling ceilings. Vanes, depending on nulling process and application Finished Usee . tr.m. sne.ving c& o-not, boards and on < app catons .'. here a...

Specialty Tools

When a carpentry project calls for a tool that you don't own. you need to decide whether it's worth the investment to buy it. Good quality tools can be expensive. making purchases hard to justify if you won't be using them often. For these types of tools, renting may be a better option. A wide assortment of tools, including the ones featured on these pages, are available at rental centers at a reasonable cost. Renting gives you an opportunity to try a tool that you're considering buying, and...

How to Make a Fingerboard

1 Fingerboards help guide a workpiece through the blade of a table saw safely and precisely. Select a piece of straight 1 x 4 that is free of knots and cracks, mark a stop line 8' from the end of the board. Mark a series of parallel lines apart from the end of the board to the stop line. 2 Mark the end of the board at a 20 angle and clamp the workpiece firmly with the end line overhanging the work surface. Cut oft the end of the board using a jig saw 3 Make a series of parallel cuts from the...

How to Install Chair Rail or Picture Rail

ISnap level chalk lines to mark the edge of the molding that will be least visible. Cut the pieces as you would cut baseboard (pages 158 and 159). Most ceiling moldings wrap the entire room. However. if it's necessary to stop the mokiing at some point, miter the end, then conceal the miter by cutting a mitered return piece to fit. Attach it by applying a thm bead of wood glue or hot glue to the mitered edges. 2 Locate and mark the studs, then align the edge of each p ece with the chalk line....

Project Safety

Your personal safety when working on carpentry projects depends greatly on what safety measures you take. The power tools sold today offer many safety features, such as blade guards, locks to prevent accidental starts, and double insulation lo reduce the r sk of shock in the event of a short circuit, it's up to you to take advantage of these safety features. For example, never operate a saw with the blade guard removed You risk injury from flying debris as well as from being cut by the blade...

How to Remove Wallboard

IMark the width of the rough opening on the wall and locate the first stud on either side of the planned rough opening If the rough opening is more than 8' from the next stud, use a chalk line to mark a cutting Une on the inside edge of the stud. During framing, an extra stud will be attached to provide a surface for anchoring the new wa'.iboard (page 137). Tip If the rough opening is less than 8* from the next stud, you will not have room to attach an extra stud Use a chalk line to mark the...

Choosing Countertops

Countertops provide the main workspace in many rooms, so they must be made from durable and easy-to-clean materials Counter-tops add color, pattern texture, and shape to a room, so choose a styie that harmonizes with the other elements in the room. Custom laminate countertops are built by gluing sheet laminates to particleboard. Laminates are available in hundreds of colors and patterns to match any decorating scheme. Special edge treatments can be added to customize a laminate countertop (page...

Tips For Setting Up a Power Miter

Anchor the saw to a stationary workbench, using C-clamps To support long moldings or other stock, build a pair of blocks the height of the saw table, using 1x lumber. Align the blocks with the saw fence and clamp them to the workbench. Anchor the saw to a stationary workbench, using C-clamps To support long moldings or other stock, build a pair of blocks the height of the saw table, using 1x lumber. Align the blocks with the saw fence and clamp them to the workbench. Option Consider building a...

Building a Straightedge Guide

Making straight and accurate rip cuts or cutting long sheets of plywood or paneling is a challenge. Even the best carpenter can't always keep the blade on the cutline. especially over a longer span A straightedge guide or jig solves the problem. As long as you keep the saw's baseplate flush with the edge of the cleat as you make the cut. you're assured of a straight cut on your workpiece. The guide's cieated edge provides a reliable anchor for the baseplate of the circular saw as the blade...

How to Make Plunge Cuts

Cut timbers that are thicker than the maximum depth of your circular saw by setting the blade depth to slightly more than half the timber thickness and making matching cuts from opposite sides Take care to keep the cuts straight Clamp a straightedge to your workpiece for straight, long cuts. Keep the baseplate tight against the straightedge and move the saw smoothly through the material Drive a wood shim into the kerf after you have started the cutting workpiece to keep your saw from bmdmg For...

How to Install Wainscoting at Inside Corners

Houses With Marmol Corner Inside

IMold a level against the first board and hold the board flush with the corner. If the wall is out of plumb, trim the board to compensate Ho*d the board plumb, position a compass at the inside comer of the wall and use it to scribe a i ne down the board 2 Cut along the scribed line with a circular saw 3 Hold the first board in the corner. leaving a gap for ex pansion. and facenail into the center of the board at each nailer location, using 6d finish nails Drive the top nails roughly V from the...

How to Measure for an Overlay Drawer

1 Measure the width and height of the face frame opening, and the depth of the cabinet from face frame to back panel inside and is s*zed so it overhangs the face frame by V on all sides. Note This drawer is designed to be mounted with a center-mounted drawer slide attached to the bottom of the drawer (page opposite) If you use different hardware, like side-mounted drawer slides, you will need to alter th.s design according to the slide manufacturer s directions Wloth of opening minus V Depth of...

Adding Shelves

When making shelves for your floor-to-ceiling shelves (page 222) or utility shelves (page 228), choose shelving materials appropriate for the loads they must support. Thin glass shelves or particleboard can easily support light toads, such as decorative glassware, but only the sturdiest shelves can hold a large television set or heavy reference books without bending or breaking. The strength of a shelf depends on its span-the distance between vertical risers. In general, the span should be no...

Drills Bits

The power dnil is one of the most popular and versatile power tools. Thanks to a host of improvements in its design today's drills have many more functions than just drilling holes Most of today's drills are variable-speed reversing (VSR) drills, making them convenient for driving and removing screws, nuts, and bolts as well as for drilling, sanding, and stirring paint The keyless chuck on most new drills makes it easy to swap bits or quickly convert a drill into a grinder, sander. or paint...

Finishing Projects

One-step wood finishes include (from eft to right) rubbing oiVfmish a combination of tinted penetrating oil and semigloss tung oil pure tung oil finish a clear. semigjoss finish often used to protect bare wood, and Danish oil a penetrating, nongloss o< l available in many tints. When choosing a tinted one-step finish, choose a color that matches other woodwork m your home, and always test the finish on scrap wood before you begin. Careful finishing work is as important as good construction,...

Materials Masking tape scrap 2x4

IShut off the power and inspect the wall for wiring and plumbing Mark the wall area to be removed by following the directions on page 172 Apply a double layer of masking tape along the oots-de edge of each cutting line 2 Score each line several times with a utility knife, using a straightedge as a guide Scored lines should be at least A' deep 3 Beginning at the top of the wait in the center of the planned opening break up the plaster by strik-ng the wall lightly with the side of a hammer Clear...

How to Attach a Ceilinghung Cabinet to Blocking joists must ooaccetf

Wood Joint Tool

ICut a cardboard template to the same size as the top of the cabinet Use template to outline position of the cabinet on the ceiling. Mark the position of the cabinet face frame on the outline. 2 Locate joists with a stud f nder. If the josts run parallel to the cabinet, install blocking between the them to hang cabinet (below) Measure the Oist positions and mark the cab< net frame to indicate where to drive the screws. 1 Drill reference holes through the ceiling at each corner of the cabmet...

How to Drive Nails with a Hammer

Finish Nail Angle Strength

To set a finish nail below the surface, position the tip of a nail set on the nail head and strike the other end with a hammer Hold the hammer with a relaxed grip Take advantage of the hammer's momentum and weight by releasing your wrist at the bottom of the swing as if you were throwing the head of the hammer onto the nail Hit the nail squarely on the head, repeating the motion until the nail head is Hush with the work surface. To set a finish nail below the surface, position the tip of a nail...

How to Miter Cove Molding With a Standard Miter

IOn a non-compound miter saw. cove moldings must be positioned at an angle for cutting Position the molding upside-down so the flats on the back of the molding are flush with the saw table and fence. 2 Set the ttfade at 45 and cut the molding. To cut the molding for an adjoining wall, swivel the miter saw to the opposite 45 setting and make a cut on the second piece, so that it will fit with the first p> ece to form a corner Decorative edging s usually made with a bit that has a pikH at the...

Removing Exterior Surfaces

Exterior surfaces must be removed when you want to create a new opening for a door, window. or room addition in an exterior wall Start by identifying the surface If it is lap siding, t may be wood, vinyl, or metal. The same basic method is used for removal of any exterior surface. However, some materials must be cut with a specialty saw blade, such as a metal-cutting blade (page 52). Always shut off the power and reroute utility lines, remove any interior surfaces, and frame in the new opening...

Variations of Power Miter Saws

A compound miter saw cuts bevels ar.c miters at the same tune The miter anc bevel scales make it easy to set the saw quickly for precise angles. Bcforo cutting make sure the material rs flush with the guide fence. Otherwise, the angle you cut will be incorrect. Extension arms provide a sate way to hold longer materials in place Some models also offer stock clamps that secure workpieces to the saw table Always remove debns or small wood scraps that may be blocking the kerf board before Beginning...

How to Make an Opening in Stucco

Brick Mould Stucco

Tip Stucco > s a multipte-layer cement product applied to metal lath Building paper is sandwiched between the metal lath and the sheathing to create a waterproof barrer. Stucco is extremely durable due to its cement base But if you don't do the removal carefully, it's easy to crack the stucco past the outline for tne new window or door. TooJs Dhll with an 8* long. V twist and masonry bits, tape measure, chalk line, compass, masonry hammer. eye and ear protection. circular saw and blades...

Installing Cabinets

Stud Space Cabinet

Cabinets should be firmly anchored to wall studs, and must be exactly plumb and tevel so that the doors and drawers operate smoothly. Number each cabinet and mark its position on the wall Remove the cabinet doors and drawers. and number them so they can be easify replaced after the cabinets are installed Begin with the corner cabinets, making sure they are installed plumb and level. Adjacent cabinets are easily aligned once the corner cabinets have been correctly positioned Tools. Tape measure,...

Planning a Carpentry Project

A carpentry project can be fun and rewarding, but it requires more than just a knack for cutting lumber and pounding nails. In fact, your natural ability with tools may not affect the finished product as much as your attention to details, materials, costs, and k> cal building codes. Address these issues in the planning stages so you can use your time efficiently once you start to cut Start any project by asking yourself the questions below. Once you've addressed each question, you can feel...

Building A Partition Wall A Stepbystep Overview

This sequence shows the basic steps of building a partition wall, one of the primary carpentry skills. Partition walls divide open spaces into rooms, but do not carry any significant structural we-.ght They begin with a horizontal top plate nailed to the ceiling, and a sole plate fastened to the flooring In between the plates, studs are placed every 16* to 24*. as specified by local building codes To estimate the lumber needed to build a wall, calculate boards for the studs, top and sole plate,...

Soundproofing Walls Ceilings

The best t> me to soundproof walls and ceilings is during construction, when the framing is accessible and soundproofing materials can be concealed inside the wall Existing walls can be soundproofed by adding materials such as sound board or a layer of additional wallboard attached to resilient steel channels Either of these methods will cushion the wall against noise transmission. Walls and ceilings are rated for sound transmission by a system called Sound Transmission Class (STC). The...

Tape Measures

Sawhorses 30-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-41 42-47 48-49 50-56 57 58-61 62-65 70-73 74-77 78-79 80-83 There are two basic types of tool belts ap'rxvstyle and sde-mounted bags (Shown here). Side bags don't get in your way when you crouch, and make the tocis easier to reach However it ts easier to get between studs wh le wearing an apron-style belt Optional bolt attachments, such as bolsters for drills, help organize your tool load. They can be worn atone or with other tool bags. Optional bolt...

Shelves

Plywood Under Stairs

Floor-to-ceil ng shelves are sturdier and make better use of space than freestanding bookcases When finished and trimmed to match the surrounding room, floor-to-ceiling shelves turn an ordinary room into an inviting den or library. This project uses finish-grade oak plywood and a solid oak face frame to create the look of an expensive, solid oak shelf unit at a fraction of the cost The plywood panels are supported and strengthened by an internal framework of 2 x 4 stud lumber When installing...

Framing an Exterior Door Opening

Framing Door Jack King Studs

The rough opening for a new exterior door should be framed after the interior preparation work is done (pages 172 to 175). but before the exterior wall surfaces are removed The methods for framing the opening will vary, depending on what type of construction your house was built with (see photos, above). Make sure the rough opening is 1 wider and Ji* taller than the dimensions of the door you plan to install, including the jambs, to allow space for adjustment during installation Because...

How to Remove Wall Framing

1 Prepare the project site and remove the wall surfaces Remove or reroute any wiring, plumbing lines, or ductwork adjoining walls just enough to expose the permanent studs 3 Determine if the wall being removed is k> ad-beanng. if the wall is oad-bearing. install temporary supports on each side pages 182 to 185) Remove studs by cutting them through the middle and prying them from the sole and top plates. Remove studs by cutting them through the middle and prying them from the sole and top...

Specialty Tools Materials See photo page opposite

1 Measure the span of the base cabinets, from the corner to the outside edge of the cabinet Add 1* for overhang if end will be exposed. If an end will butt agamst an appliance, subtract Vie- to prevent scratches. Specialty tools & supplies include wood shims (A), take-up bo*ts (B) wallboard screws (C). wire brads (D). household iron (E) endcap laminate (F). endcap battens (G). silicon caulk (H). Me (I), adjustable wrench (J), carpenter's gkje (K). buildup blocks (L). scribing compass (M) 2...

Building a Workbench

This workbench has heavy-duty legs to support big loads and a sturdy double-layer top to withstand pounding. Cover the top with a hardboard surface that can be removed when it becomes damaged. Build a shelf below the work surface for storing power tools. If desired, mount an all-purpose vise on top of the workbench If hardboard top, 24x60* plywood top. 24 x 60 2 x 4 crosspieces. 21 2x4 legs, 19 ' 2x4 braces, 54* 2x6 front (top) brace 5T Tools Circular saw carpenter s square drill and bits,...

Tips for Making Rip Cuts

Tip Copy existing angles with a T-beyel. Transpose the cutting line to your workptece and adjust the angle of your circular saw to cut on the line 1 Loosen the bevel adjustment knob and slide the knob to the required setting. Nor* Some models have a setscrew for common angles such as 90 (no bevel) and 45* Tighten the knob 2 Positron the caseplate of your saw on the workp-ece. As you cut. s ghl down the blade to ensure it remains aligned with the cutting line on the waste side of the workpiece...

Building A Partition Wall

Finished Opening For Bifold Doors

The framing techniques used to construct partition walls are simple because the walls are not toad-bearing However locating the joists beneath finished ceilings and floors may be difficult. If you don't have access to unfinished spaces above and below the work area, use a stud finder to determine the location and direction of the joists. Interior partition walls usually are built with 2x4 lumber, but in some situations it is better to frame with 2x6 lumber (photo, left) Before finishing the...

Materials for Building a Header

Header House Construction

Beam made from 2 x 12s and plywood 8-ft. maximum recommended span. Double 9H MicroLam* beam 10-ft. maximum recommended span. MicroLam framing members are made from thin layers of wood laminate glued together Double 11X- MicroLam beam 11-ft. maximum recommended span. 12M Glue-lam beam 12-ft. maximum recommended span. Glue-lam beams are made from layers of dimension lumber laminated together. _ Manufactured support members are stronger and more durab'e than 2* dimension lumber, so they work wel...

How to Miter Cove Moldings on a Compound Miter

Lay the molding flat on The saw tabte and set the miter ano bevel angles For cove moldings the standard settings are 33 (miter) and 31 62* (bevel). On many saws, these settings are highlighted for easy identification. If the walls are not perpendicular, you will need to experiment to find the correct settings. Lay the molding flat on The saw tabte and set the miter ano bevel angles For cove moldings the standard settings are 33 (miter) and 31 62* (bevel). On many saws, these settings are...

Materials

Plywood & Sheet Goods 18-19 Trim Moldings 20-21 Screws & Other Hardware 24-25 Glues & Adhesives 26-27 Standard & Soundproofed Floor & Ceiling Construction Soundproofed construction uses carpet and padding on the floor, fiberglass insulation, resilient steel channel screwed to the joists, and wallboard on the ceiling. The rating for this system is 48 STC. Standard construction, with a wooden subfloor and wallboard on the ceiling below, carries a sound transmission rating of 32...

Levels

Levels are essential to virtually every carpentry project. They help you build walls that are perfectly vertical (plumb), shelves countertops. and steps that are level, and roofs that incline at a correct and consistent pitch. Take care of your levels. Do not throw them into a tool bucket or box. Unlike some other tools, a level is a finely tuned instrument that is easily broken Before you buy a level, test it on a level surface to make sure the vials are accurate (opposite page). Most levels...

Choosing the Right Handsaw

Hacksaw Cutting

A crosscut saw comes in handy for single-cut projects or in confined spaces where power toots won't f t. At the end of a cut. saw slowly, and support waste material with your free hand to prevent splintering. A crosscut saw comes in handy for single-cut projects or in confined spaces where power toots won't f t. At the end of a cut. saw slowly, and support waste material with your free hand to prevent splintering. A hacksaw with a miter box cuts precise angles on moldings and other trim. Damp...

Scarf Joint Baseboard

Floor Trim End Cap

Direct sight lines from room entrance Plan the order of installation -or your baseboard or ceiling moldings to save time and improve your results. Start by measuring the walls that are most noticeable typically walls that are directly opposite entrances to the room. Cut and install the pieces for those walls first so that any gaps in the corners will be out of the direct line of sight when you enter the room. On subsequent pieces, cut the inside corners to size, then hold those pieces in...

Covering Foundation Walls

Caulk Between Sill Plate And Concrete

There are two common methods for covering foundation walls Because it saves space, the more popular method is to attach 2x2 furring strips to the masonry wall These strips provide a 1 -deep cavity between strips for insulation and service lines, as well as a framework for attaching wallboard The other method is to build a complete 2x4 stud wall and nstall it just in front of the foundation wall. This method offers a full 3 for insulation and lines, and it provides a flat, plumb wall surface,...

Installing Wallboard

Wallboard has become the standard material for finishing most interior walls because it is relatively easy to install and creates smooth, uniform wall surfaces. Wallboard is commonly available in 4 x 8-ft. and 4 x 12-ft. sheets, and in thicknesses ranging from m to K For general construction a 4 x 8-ft sheet is known as a full sheet Some stores also carry half sheets and quarter sheets, or 4 x 4-ft. and 2 x 4-ft sheets. For easy handling in most applications, use 4 x 8-ft. sheets of V...

Building a Custom Laminate Countertop

Using Compass Measure Uneven Walls

Build your own durable, beautiful countertop with plastic sheet laminates Plastic laminates are available in hundreds of colors, styles, and textures. A counter-top made with laminates can be tailored to fit any space. Laminates are sold in 6-. 8-. 10-. or 12-foot lengths that are about Yn thick Laminate sheets range in width from 30' to 48V Most laminates are made by bonding a thin surface layer of colored plastic to a core of hardened resins. Another type of laminate has consistent color...

How to Remove a Load Bearing Wall With Platform Framing

IMark the location of the planned support posts on the sole plate. Drill through the sole plate where the support posts will rest to make sure there is a joist directly underneath If not. install blocking under the post locations (stop 2) 2 If necessary, cut and install double Z blocking between joists. (You may need to cut into a finished ceiling to gam access to this space) Blocking should be the same size lumber as the joists Attach blocks to Oists wth I0d nails. A new door opening In a...

Framing Soffits Chases

Removable Panel Fixing System

Your unfinished basement or attic is sure to have beams, pipes, posts, ductwork, and other elements that are vital to your house but become big obstacles to finishing the space. When you can't conceal the obstructions within walls, and you've determined it's too costly to move them, hide them inside a framed soffit or chase. This can also provide a place to run smaller mechanicals, like wiring and water supply lines Soffits and chases are easy to build. A soffit is usually constructed with 2x2...

Paneling an Attic Ceiling

Paneling Attic

Tongue-and-groove paneling is a pleasing alternative to a wallboard ceiling, particularly in a knee-wall attic Pine paneling is most common, but any tongue-and-groove material can be used, these materials are typically X to Jf thick and are attached directly to ceiling joists and rafters (over faced insulation, when required) Most codes require you to install wallboard as a fire stop under ceiling material thinner than y . Allow for waste by purchasing 15 more material than the square footage...

How to Support Platform Framing With a Temporary Stud Wall Joists Perpendicular to Wall

Making Temporary Wall Support

1 Build a 2 x 4 stud wall that is 4 ft. wider than the planned wel opening and 1V shorter than the distance from floor to celling 2 Raise the stud wall up and position it 3 ft. from the wall, centered on the planned rough opening 3 Slide a 2 x 4 top plate between the temporary wall and the ceiling Check to make sure the wall is plumb, and drive shims under the top p ate at 12' intervals until the wall is wedged tightly in place

Variations for Roundtop Windows

Create a template to heip you mark the rough opening on the sheathing. Scribe the outline of the curved frame on cardboard, allowing an extra fc for adjustments within the rough opening A X x 1 Ma metal washer makes a good spacer for scribing the outline. Cut out the template along the scribed line Tape the template to the sheathing, with the top flush against the header. Use the template as a guide for attaching diagonal framing members across the top corners of the framed opening The diagonal...

Tips for Using a Swiveltype Miter

How Use Wonder Mitre For Coving

Use a swivel-type miter box to make cuts up to 45 m either direction. Swivel the Wade assembly to the exact angle you need to cut using the miter scaJe as a guide, and set the blade lock to hold the blade m place during cutting. Make sure the material is flush with the fence before you begin cutting. Think of the base of the miter box as the celling and the fence as the wall when portioning cove moldings This will remind you to place the molding in the miter box upside down and sprung at a 45...

Installing a Postform Countertop

Post-form laminate countertops come in stock lengths, and are cut to fit your space Pre-mitered sections are available for two- or three-piece countertops that continue around corners. If the countertop has an exposed end. you will need an endcap kit that contains a preshaped strip of matching laminate For a precise fit. the backsplash must be trimmed to fit any unevenness in the back wall. This process is called scribing Post-form countertops have a narrow strip of laminate on the backsplash...

Options for Installing Door Window Casings

Window Casing With Rosettes And Shelf

Combine mitered and butted casings, f-'orm miter jo lt nts at the top of the window, then square-cut the bottoms of the side cas ngs. Cut the sill casing to extend 1' beyond the side casings. Hand-sand the ends with 150-grit sandpaper, removing any rough edges Mark the sill casing V from each end. then invert it so thick edge is up. Attach the sill casing to the wall with finish nails so the pencil marks are aligned with the edges of the side casings Combine mitered and butted casings, f-'orm...