Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

Power Efficiency Guide Summary


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The Importance Of Energy Efficiency Dims For Commercial Real Estate Investors

Water Storage Tanks Fiberglass

Forty percent of respondents indicated a decline in the business significance of climate change and energy issues and an additional 17 percent reported a significant weakening. Nearly 80 percent said they have not altered business models in response to climate change or energy efficiency. On the upside, the survey found interest in energy efficiency and climate change is likely to pick up when the market rallies. Also, lenders tend to view energy efficiency, rather than climate change, as an important bottomline issue and are more apt to reshape their business strategies around reducing energy costs rather than reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Reducing Energy Consumption

Through the R-2000 Program, industry and government have developed technical requirements and a program to support testing and registration of new homes that meet a high standard of energy efficiency and environmental performance. Natural Resources Canada is assisting industry in the ongoing development and operation of the R-2000 Program. In an older home, you can reduce the amount of energy you use by incorporating energy-efficient materials and techniques in your renovation plan. You can renovate to save energy, increase comfort and improve durability. You can install high levels of insulation, use air and vapour barriers, and seal the cracks where air leaks in and out, while ensuring adequate ventilation. All of this can reduce your energy bill significantly.

Saving energy by introducing building control systems

In a study reported in Meyer (2000), in which the interviewees were asked which functions they would expect and require to be performed by a home automation system, the temperature reduction during the occupants' absence was requested in the first place. This request implies the reduction of heating energy consumption and the associated reduction of heating costs. As mentioned earlier, an installed bus system provides the option of single room control. The target room temperature can be (pre) determined for each room for a given time. Furthermore, the flow temperature can be adjusted depending on the heat output demanded by the individual spaces. These control options can reduce heating energy consumption, provided that they are properly programmed. However, the amount of energy to be actually saved strongly depends on the structural conditions of a specified building. The smaller the thermal mass of the building and the poorer the thermal insulation of the building skin, the greater...

A24 Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

The IEA sponsors research and development in a number of areas related to energy. The mission of one of those areas, the Energy Conservation for Building and Community Systems Programme (ECBCS), is to facilitate and accelerate the introduction of energy conservation and environmentally sustainable technologies into healthy buildings and community systems through innovation and research in decision-making, building assemblies and systems, and commercialization. The objectives of collaborative work within the ECBCS research and development programme are directly derived from the ongoing energy and environmental challenges facing IEA countries in the area of construction, the energy market and research. ECBCS addresses major challenges and takes advantage of opportunities in the following areas Overall control of the programme is maintained by an executive committee, which not only monitors existing projects, but also identifies new areas where collaborative effort may be beneficial. To...

A22 International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established in 1974 as an autonomous agency within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), to carry out a comprehensive programme of energy cooperation among its 25 member countries and the commission of the European Communities. An important part of the Agency's programme involves collaboration in the research, development and demonstration of new energy technologies to reduce excessive reliance on imported oil, to increase long-term energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The IEA SHC's research and development activities are headed by the Committee on Energy Research and Technology (CERT) and supported by a small secretariat staff, headquartered in Paris. In addition, three working parties are charged with monitoring the various collaborative energy agreements, identifying new areas for cooperation and advising CERT on policy matters.

Energy Consumption and Global Warming

China's energy use has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Some studies suggest that within the next 30 to 40 years, China will equal or surpass the United States as the world's largest energy-consuming nation (Figure 1). While there may be debate as to the exact rate of this growth, China's energy consumption is undeniably approaching that of the world leader. Currently, buildings in China consume only about 18 percent of energy in the country. As industries are modernized and the economy develops a service sector, industrial energy use may grow more slowly. At the same time, as people demand larger living spaces and more comfortable living conditions, the use of energy in buildings should rise, and may approach levels in Western countries - approximately one-third of total energy consumption. Figure 1 High growth, reference, and low growth projections of future total energy consumption (Source U.S. EIA 2001) Figure 1 High growth, reference, and low growth projections of future...

Current Policy in China Relevant to Residential Building Energy Efficiency

Policy must play a substantial role in implementing residential energy conservation measures. The most significant achievements to date in residential energy conservation have been achieved through standards and labeling programs for energy-efficient appliances. Currently, the slow adoption of new energy pricing systems, a lack of enforcement of building codes, and the scarcity of educational initiatives are all significant impediments to reform. The intentions of China's Energy Conservation Law (ECL), approved on 1 November 1997, are to do the following promote energy conservation activities throughout society improve energy efficiency and increase economic benefits thereof Relevant to building energy efficiency, the law states that the government should develop polices and plans that insure rational energy utilization and strengthen educational activities to increase public awareness of energy conservation. Although the ECL does not give clear guidance on the extent of regulations...

Saving Energy Saves Money

While many consider our high per capita rate of energy use to be necessary to fuel our equally high standard of living, it is interesting to note that in western Europe, where people enjoy a standard of living comparable to ours, they use only half as much energy per person. Why is this , you may ask. The answer is simple. Energy costs in Europe have been high for some time, and waste could not be allowed. Sensible House Design To live an energy-efficient lifestyle does not mean that one must make sacrifices or do without one's comforts. To the contrary, a home that is properly designed for efficient energy use will be more comfortable year-round, with less over-heating, cold-spots and drafts. If a house is properly oriented to allow for maximum winter sun and summer shade, heating and cooling costs will be reduced drastically. Add to that good insulation, low infiltration (of outside air) & proper window placement, and our job becomes even easier. Want a quick & inexpensive way to...

Materials And Sources

The home's Interiors echo the angular look of the exterior, whose lower half was re-clad In FSC-certified fiber cement board siding while the second floor Is outfitted with durable corrugated metal siding. Energy-efficient fixtures and appliances Including a 92-percent-efflcient furnace and 86-percent-efflcient gas water heater further reduce the home's carbon footprint. Low-flow fixtures and dual-flush toilets reduce water use by 64 percent over other homes of a similar size.

Passive Solar Building Design

Solar energy travels through the windows of a building, increasing the energy used by air conditioners and degrading occupant comfort. An ideal passive solar building minimizes internal energy use by optimizing its design to suit the annual path of the sun and the local climate. A primary goal in energy-efficient design for buildings in warm climates such as Shenzhen is that they must minimize solar heat gain during much of the year. Shenzhen's climate is hot and humid during most of the year. Therefore, minimizing solar heat gain through windows, especially during the warmest months, will both reduce air-conditioning loads and improve the energy efficiency of a building. Eastern and western windows contribute significantly to solar gain during the summer months. Southern windows have very large solar gains even during the winter months. Opening windows during winter (when air is cooler than comfort levels) balances the excess wintertime solar gains and can easily solve this problem....

High Rise Residential Building Complex in Beijing

Highrise Center Green

In the past, a good living environment in China implied ample space between buildings filled with trees and grass. High-rise buildings have been regarded as a symbol of modernity and luxury. A typical building consisting of such residential units is shown in Figure 8. Jiang et al (1999) made a detailed analysis on the design and found that such a design is not sustainable in terms of energy efficiency and Chinese culture. The study showed that the best design would be made up of low-rise buildings with varying-sized courtyards. This would avoid a harsh winter wind, let the winter sun in, and promote the use of natural ventilation. Of course, wind is not the only factor in producing an energy-efficient building design. Changing the tower shape may have an impact on the desire to have south-facing windows. This can be achieved through architectural design, as shown in Figure 10. The thin structure also allows the use of natural ventilation in the summer. See Chapter 11, Case Study Two -...

Case Study Five Beijing Hui Long Guan

Tian Hong requested a design strategy with an emphasis on ecological, environmental, and economic sustainability. For the Beijing climate, with cold winters and hot summers, the primary design strategy was to reduce energy consumption in the buildings. The objective was to simultaneously decrease heat loss, maximize solar gain, and reduce the heating load in the winter months, while providing means to reduce energy use for cooling in the summer months.

Shenzhen Wonderland Phase Iv

Shenzhen, located In southern China, is in a region with a warmer climate than Beijing or Shanghai. Vanke Architecture Technology Research Center in Shenzhen invited MIT to work on the site plan and architectural design for energy-efficient housing for phase IV of the Shenzhen Wonderland development (Figure 1). When this project was initiated in 1999, the first two phases of housing were already completed, while phase III and IV were in design development. The program for phase IV included 259 units on 20,000 square meters with a floor area ratio (FAR) of 1.45-1.65, for a total of 30,000 square meters of gross internal area. Unit areas varied from 45 to 135 square meters, and building heights ranged from five to eleven stories. Several factors influenced the final scheme designed by MIT. These included energy recommendations based on research of energy saving scenarios as well as urban design concepts, such as an interest in providing a variety of building and unit types. Due to the...

Managing The Big Picture

In terms of overall U.S. energy consumption, it is estimated that the facilities sector is responsible for 41 percent of energy use. While the public has focused on transportation, examining energy use and its impact on national security should cause a shift in focus toward facilities. This shift undoubt-ably will bring greater attention to the integration of all facility-related issues. To make this change a positive one, the facilities and infrastructure industry needs to put in place a comprehensive plan and set of standards. Minimizing energy consumption needs a life-cycle solution, not merely a look at initial costs, and BIM will play an extremely important role in the changing of objectives.

Install An Energysaving Upgrade With W An Average Payback Of Less Than Three Years

A thin, virtually invisible addition to your existing windows, VISTA Architectural Window Film may significantly increase energy efficiency for years to come at a fraction of window replacement costs. Plus, using VISTA may help you qualify for LEED credits. To pre-qualify your building for energy efficiency and savings with window film, take the One Minute Challenge at oneminutechallenge.com.

Ecommercial Category

Dan Helnfeld, Evergreen Awards judge and president of Irvine, Calif-based architecture firm LPA, notes the atrium achieved multiple objectives. This large office project Is a good example of how sustainability can Inform the design process. The use of the atrium to maximize day-lighting and energy efficiency also creates a good neighbor that fits Its historic downtown context with an appropriate scale and streetscape.

Climaterelated Revenue Booms

Across the globe rose by 75 percent in 2008, according to HSBC Global Research. What's more, revenues from businesses in the climate sector, such as those pertaining to energy efficiency, possibly could exceed 2 trillion by 2020, reports Reuters news service. In comparison, in 2006 the Stern Review on the economics of climate change forecast climate-related revenues to climb to 500 billion by 2050. The report identified four core investment pillars in the sector low-carbon energy production energy efficiency control of water, waste, and pollution and climate finance. Of these sectors, energy efficiency saw the highest investment returns in the year to date (30 percent), followed by carbon finance (24 percent). Currently the United States, Japan, France, Germany, and Spain account for 76 percent of global climate revenues, according to the report. G5 Moving forward with a plan to phase out traditional incandescent and halogen light bulbs from the European marketplace by 2012, on Sept....

Ventilation and Infiltration

Ventilation was found to reduce annual cooling energy consumption by about 24 percent, via use of outdoor air when conditions are considered comfortable. Figure 26 shows the monthly impact of ventilation at 10 ACH. For each month, savings are given for 10-hour-per-day (night) and 24-hour ventilation the sum of the monthly savings gives the annual savings. From January through March and again in November and December, most of the savings are during the day, when heat loads can be removed by cool outdoor air. In April through June and again from September through October, when outdoor temperatures during the day are warmer, most of the savings are due to ventilation at night. Infiltration contributes to the building cooling load in hot weather, when outdoor temperatures exceed indoor temperatures. Fans would be needed when winds are not adequate to provide the desired airflow.

Trends in the Chinese Residential Sector

The ownership of durable goods has increased rapidly in the urban areas of China. A large proportion of urban households now has fans, refrigerators, washing machines, and color televisions. The surge in ownership of these and other durable appliances has increased energy consumption sharply (Figure 4). For example, China is now the world's largest producer of air conditioners. Guangdong had over 140 air conditioners per 100 households, while Shanghai had 136 in 2003. The demand for energy in the summer of 2005 in Shanghai was projected at a record high of 19 million kilowatts. Air conditioners accounted for a large amount of that demand, 7.5 to 8 million kilowatts, according to the Shanghai Electric Power Company (People's Daily Online 2005). Currently, the energy consumption in a typical Chinese residential unit is an order of magnitude lower than a comparable residential unit in the United States. As the older housing stock is replaced, air conditioners become more common, and...

The Building Structure

Therein lies the first problem in assessing and reducing embodied energy consumption of typical construction practices. At the moment there is a critical lack of data regarding the embodied energy of basic construction materials in China. For the purpose of this chapter, figures for embodied energy are derived from a number of Western sources, unless otherwise noted.

The Barriers To Sustainability And Innovation

China Energy Consumption 2018

These questions were central to recent research work by Singh Intrachooto and the author, Andrew Scott, at MIT. Buildings from across the globe that were commonly regarded to have some form of innovation in their production of low-energy or sustainable qualities were studied. The research looked not only at the product of the design, namely, the building and its technology, materials, systems, or method, but also at the design processes and the teams and procedures that produced them. Several factors were found that were incentives as well as barriers to the creation of sustainability. On the positive side, the role of research was often critical to the development of new products, materials, or systems, and the testing of performance through simulations in such projects. Research establishments (universities, institutions, research centers) were able to obtain funding for developing research that is often not possible within the scope and terms of a professional design team's project...

Technical Recommendations

The design of Shenzhen Wonderland phase IV began with in-depth technical studies analyzing energy-saving scenarios. These preliminary technical simulations, developed using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program (AEC 2006), shading studies, CFD for prediction of airflow, and sound engineering information, were based on detailed analyses of site conditions and building design. Results from the analyses were summarized to include recommendations regarding building orientation, layout, fa ade design, ventilation, noise, thermostat, and air conditioners. Annual energy usage based on the various simulations was compared to the base case (Table 1), and the findings are summarized in Table 2, as well as in the text that follows. These findings showed that solar heat through windows dominated summer heat gains.

Technical Opportunities

Potential technical innovations must be considered as part of an overall program, one that addresses building design and technology in the context of community needs. For example, tightly built, energy-efficient buildings may have greater problems with poor indoor air quality. Regenerative heat exchangers are necessary to achieve adequate ventilation while maintaining energy efficiency.

Sustainable Urban Housing In China

Sustainable building development can also have important impacts on China as a whole, on local municipal areas, on building developers and designers, and on individual homebuyers. China can benefit from more efficient use of its resources and capital in future periods of expansion. Investment in energy-efficient building features is often more cost effective than investment in additional energy supplies required for a new building of conventional design. A municipal area can provide better housing for its citizens while retaining livable open spaces and a shared sense of community among its residents.

Suggested Policies to Drive Adoption of Sustainable Buildings

Policy options are plentiful, and will be most effective if implemented as part of a portfolio of programs. Perhaps the most effective course of action is for demonstration projects to be built, tested by a reputable source, and publicized. This would serve to minimize the perceived risk of new technologies and methods. Demand-side management (DSM) programs, in which utilities offer subsidies for such investments, offer yet another way to leverage incentives for energy-efficient building design. Finally, education and awareness concerning the comfort, health, and cost-saving benefits of sustainable buildings must be spread through public service announcements, workshops, and media coverage.

Study 3 Lowenergy Building Design In Shenzhen

This study focused on a new residential development in Shenzhen. The issues addressed included siting of the buildings, shading of windows, and control of noise. The study produced a set of recommendations aimed toward reducing energy consumption and noise levels in the proposed houses.

Study 2 Improving Thermal Comfort In Beijing Housing

This investigation considered whether careful attention to architectural design and use of mechanical ventilation are sufficient to maintain thermal comfort in dwellings in Beijing without the use of vapor-compression air-conditioning equipment. The study was motivated by a desire to define strategies that would reduce building operating costs, energy demands, potential environmental impacts associated with energy usage, and potential occupant dissatisfaction with air-

Residential User Manual

As discussed in chapter 4, a great majority of a building's energy use is for operation during its lifetime. Therefore it is important that the end users be aware of operating procedures in order to maximize the benefits of energy-efficient housing. The residential user manual summarized in Table 11 and was written for future occupants as an informative tool to guide them in intelligently controlling their homes for both comfort and energy efficiency. The information serves as a guide to obtain optimum energy efficiency, which should be

Reform of Heating Prices

In pre-reform China, prices of all energy products were under unified state control and were allocated according to central plans. Multi-track pricing and partial liberalization was introduced in the 1980s. Energy prices, beginning with coal, were freed to a great extent, in parallel with important new reforms in taxation, finance, and other areas, in the early 1990s. Historically, and often still today, consumers either receive heat as a welfare commodity or are billed for heat based on occupied floor space. They do not pay for the amount of heating energy actually used therefore incentives do not exist to reduce heat energy consumption. Other disadvantages of the current system include low comfort level due to over- or under-heating, increased pollution due to unneeded burning of fuel (primarily coal), and low fee-collection rate. Building-area-based billing for heat is a bottleneck for energy savings. However this is beginning to change as residents of new developments pay for...

Potential For Alternative Construction Earthen And Strawbale Buildings

The variety of construction techniques and the various forms produced through the use of loam are too numerous to fully describe here. Loam is an attractive material primarily because of its low expense, ease of construction with small-scale teams, the history of use in much of China, and the low energy used in construction - a mere one percent of the energy needed to cast on-site concrete (Minke 2000). In addition, loam construction easily adapts to and fulfills the cultural needs for forms appropriate to residential buildings.

Policy And Regulation Recommendations For Improved Buildings

Using better materials Is limited by the deficiencies In the building materials Industries. Availability of high-quality materials and assemblies In China Is limited and the demand for more sophisticated products Is low. When developers are motivated to build with better materials, either by regulation, persuasive governmental suggestion (as for example, through the Ministry of Construction), or economic Incentive, they are often frustrated by a lack of availability and prohibitive costs. At the same time, material producers cannot supply larger quantities of these products until there Is clear evidence of expanding and sustained demand for such systems (World Bank 2001). It Is possible that this situation Is merely an Indication of the growing pains of a nascent market for such products. However, unlike automobiles, appliances, or other energy-consuming devices, buildings - once constructed - are part of the energy consumption Infrastructure for many decades to come. Every building...

Natural Ventilation Studies

The last ten years have seen a significant shift in the development and integration of environmental, ecological, and energy issues into the architectural design of buildings. Energy-efficient buildings address not only the issues of consumption and performance, but also the development and integration of a series of design and system technologies. Buildings should provide the

Evaluation of Specific Technologies

Indoor air quality (IAQ) is closely linked to energy consumption and therefore is relevant to building sustainability. There are often trade-offs between improving IAQ, reducing energy consumption, and maintaining thermal comfort. IAQ is one of the important factors that affects the welfare and health of occupants. A predictive model that simultaneously treats these various factors will help produce more sustainable building designs.

Equipment Efficiency and Occupant Habits

Ceiling Insulation Study on G ni x 12 m Residence Yearly Heating and Cooiing Energy Usage Ceiling Insulation Study on G ni x 12 m Residence Yearly Heating and Cooiing Energy Usage Monthly Energy Savings Due to Ventilation Figure 26 Monthly cooling-energy savings associated with ventilation Figure 27 Annual energy savings associated with individual energy-conservation measures Figure 27 Annual energy savings associated with individual energy-conservation measures Combined Upgrade Study Yearly Heating and Cooling Energy Usage Figure 28 Annual energy savings associated with combinations of measures heating and cooling energy than the same building oriented north and south. Figure 28 combines measures the best set of options for window overhang, house ventilation and roof insulation cut annual cooling energy use by 48 percent. Energy savings translate into reduced operating costs. Orienting a building to avoid strong morning and afternoon sun reduced estimated annual energy costs for...

Ecological Buildings Designing For Different Climates

Around the world people have developed energy efficient building forms that are suited to the climate conditions of their particular location - a form of 'solar vernacular'. They have developed simple solutions to the environmental challenges set before them heat, cold, rain and wind. These solutions have been developed using a limited range of indigenous building materials, all of them renewable.

Description of Building and Simulation Methodology

The study was undertaken in support of the design of multi-family, low-rise housing at a development, Beijing City Garden, near the Beijing airport. The developer had already constructed most of the buildings at this site but invited researchers at MIT and Tsinghua University to develop and analyze a design that would be more energy efficient. The site and the prospective location of the low-energy building are shown in Jiang et al (1999). To help guide the design process, we simulated an existing building as a base case and then, in simulation, modified the design and operation. This structure was a 10 meter x 12 meter, five-story (with an additional basement level), four-unit building, freestanding in our simulation, but in practice likely to be attached to adjacent dwellings. Residential units in this development were considered to be luxury housing and were relatively large, about 112 square meters. Figure 12 shows one floor in this building, with living and dining rooms. Our...

Combined Feature Simulations

The next set of simulations (simulations 1-3) centered on combining the upgraded features for optimally inclusive energy savings. The most feasible results were then identified from information gathered from the baseline parametric tests. A comparison of the baseline case versus the simulation of multiple upgrades is displayed in Figure 6. Table 2 describes the simulations and combined upgrades. Yearly Energy Consumption per Typical Residential Unit Combined Feature Specifications Simulation 1 Simulation 2 Simulation 3 Simulation 4 Simulation 5 Simulation 6 Simulation 7 Baseline Figure 6 Energy savings through the combination of feature upgrades simulations are described in Table 2

Coal Price Deregulation

One reason for high unit energy consumption is that energy prices do not reflect actual production costs. When fuel prices are lower than production costs, subsidies are needed to maintain production levels. However, subsidization is costly for the government and taxpayers this leads to inefficiencies and discourages innovation. This scenario describes China's coal-based energy system. Energy is wasted when low energy costs discourage conservation. China has begun to address this problem by reducing subsidies to the coal industry by 50 percent over the past decade. To increase the effectiveness of the market, price increases due to the decreased subsidy must be passed on to the consumer.

China Environment And Culture

As rapidly developing countries grow, they will consume a larger share of global resources and could produce damaging levels of emissions. In many countries, these problems are compounded by the concentration of the population in large cities. Densely populated areas accelerate the depletion of land and local resources. Figure 1 shows one estimate of the world consumption of energy and the projected consumption one century hence. Currently, a large portion of the world's energy is consumed by the relatively modest population in Western Europe, North America, and the Pacific Rim. If present trends continue, China and India will consume a preponderance of the world's energy by the end of this century. One study projects total energy consumption of the world will increase from approximately 350 EJ (350 x 10,8 J) in 1990 to 1300 EJ in 2095. China (China, North Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, Laos, and Kampuchea) alone is projected to consume approximately 500 EJ by 2095, more than the entire...

Architectural Design Site Considerations

The site design illustrated in this section provides a number of strategies for reducing energy consumption. Like many of the buildings in the other Shenzhen Wonderland phases, the buildings were oriented to provide high levels of north-south exposure in order to maximize shading. This orientation increased the amount of solar gain in the winter, and the high sun angle in the summer required only slight overhangs to counteract the hot summer sun. Along the east and west axis, the edges were perforated, to allow for natural airflow ventilation from the east and to decrease exposure from the intense afternoon sun from the west. Some units within buildings with north-south orientation were also staggered, affording instances of localized shading and cross-ventilation. The planning of the site took into consideration density as well as the regulatory winter sunlight code, which requires that each unit must receive at least one hour of direct sunshine every day of the year, a rule that had...

New Living Environment

Sustainability is an urban issue as well as a global issue. Land is one of the most limited resources on earth. Power, water, waste, and the like are all integral parts of the city infrastructure. Pollution, a byproduct of energy consumption, local, regional, as well as global impacts, is an international disaster. For a better tomorrow, sustainability has to be achieved, and it can be achieved with new architecture and new lifestyles as its catalysts and by-products. Hopefully this book will aid in our pursuit of sustainability and will eventually improve the world in which we live.

Recommendations for Windows and Walls

As shown in Table 2, solar gain through windows accounts for approximately 40 percent of the total cooling energy load for a base case unit in Shenzhen. Over a year, the energy from direct sunlight per area incident on all building surfaces (north, south, east, and west) totaled nearly 2.53 MWh 2. Northern windows received 3 percent of the total direct annual solar energy per area, while southern windows received 33 percent, and western and eastern facing windows each received 32 percent (64 percent combined). As a result, it was desirable that building designs minimized western and eastern exposures in order to maximize energy-efficient designs. Recommendations for window design in Shenzhen follow in the next several paragraphs. Northern windows should have small overhangs and vertical fins, or architectural projections, for the purpose of shading. Although shading the northern windows does not have a large impact on energy savings (less than one percent annually), it will greatly...

New Accolades In New Orleans

Sustainable features of the homes include solar power, geother-mal heating and cooling systems, tankless water heaters, Energy Star appliances, and efficient lighting. The homes also include storm-resistance features such as 5-foot or 8-foot elevations to protect the structure from flooding impact-resistant glass or hurricane fabric to protect windows rooftop access and mold-free paperless dry wall. Speaking at the Clinton Global Initiative meeting in New York, USGBC president and CEO Rick Fedrizzi noted, In facing our nation's unprecedented economic and environmental crises, we must change the way the places in which we live, work, learn, and play are built and operated. What we're seeing with green building goes beyond energy-efficiency to transformation of entire communities and the lives of the people who live there. Make It Right has proved that green building can be both affordable and high performing.

Design Principles For Sustainable Urban Housing In China

Others are about quality of life and the ability of people to live together without alienation. At the qualitative building level, the design team at MIT sought design solutions where the housing can be far more energy efficient, principally through the reduction of air-conditioning and improvements in the design of the building fabric, to reduce carbon dioxide emissions through the dependence upon climate-destructive energy sources such as coal-fired power plants, and to maximize the use of natural ventilation and solar energy for daylighting and winter heating. At an urban scale, we sought to develop plans that were more ecologically responsive in relation to water conservation and retention, wind patterns in and around buildings, and to landscape space that built a sense of community. However, rather than developing a design that might contain a large palette of available sustainability techniques, we sought to develop an understanding of those that would work best, that would be...

Experience with Appliances

Encouraging the use of energy-efficient appliances requires that standards be introduced and that consumers are aware of energy efficiency. Several energy efficiency programs have been introduced in China to date, with mixed success.The China Green Lights program addresses two major barriers to reform, the high initial cost of efficient technologies and poor quality of some of the products manufactured in China. Screw-in compact fluorescent lights have been observed to fail very prematurely, negating the life cycle savings and losing consumer acceptance. The CFC-Free Energy-Efficient Refrigerator Project aims to improve the energy efficiency of Chinese refrigerators through a series of market-oriented measures for manufacturers and consumers. Quality assurance is of primary importance for energy efficiency incentive programs to be successful, an important lesson for designing similar programs for buildings.

Asj Wilson Construction Mail

Greden. 2001. Energy Conservation in Chinese Residential Buildings Progress and Opportunities in Design and Policy. Annual Review Energy Environment, vol. 26 83-115. Thormark, C. 2002. A Low Energy Building in a Life Cycle - Its Embodied Energy, Energy Need for Operation and Recycling Potential. Building and Environment, vol. 37, no. 4 429-435. World Bank. 2001. China Opportunities to Improve Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Asia Alternative Energy Program and Energy and Mining Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region. World Bank, Washington, D.C. Chapter 5 - Low-Energy Building Design 76

Programmable Thermostats

With heat pumps.) Programmable thermostats can store and repeat multiple daily settings (six or more temperature settings a day) that you can manually override without affecting the rest of the daily or weekly program. When shopping for a programmable thermostat, be sure to look for the ENERGY STAR label. ENERGY STAR , (888) STAR-YES (782-7937), www.energystar.gov U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC),

Codes And Standards Building Codes in China

The Ministry of Construction (MOC) has authority at the national level over building codes in China, while local governments can develop their own codes as long as they are more stringent than the national code. To date, the emphasis has been on developing energy efficiency standards for residential buildings, although, In the northern zone (heating zone), residential building energy codes have existed since the early 1990s, although they have been enforced only since the late 1990s in Beijing and Tianjin. In the transition zone (formally known as the hot-summer cold-winter region), local residential energy standards were developed in the late 1990s for numerous cities and provinces, including Chongqing, Wuhan, Jiangsu, and Shanghai. This was followed by a national effort that ended in the promulgation of a national energy efficiency standard for the transition zone in October 2001. A residential standard for the southern zone (formally known as the hot-summer warm-winter region) was...

Your Homes Energy

The first step to taking a whole-house energy efficiency approach is to find out which parts of your house use the most energy. A home energy audit will show you where these are and suggest the most effective measures for reducing your energy costs. You can conduct a simple home energy audit yourself, you can contact your local utility, or you can call an independent energy auditor for a more comprehensive examination.

Major Appliance Shopping Guide

AFUE is the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency rating. The AFUE measures the seasonal or annual efficiency. For ENERGY STAR products, 90 is the AFUE rating. EER is the Energy Efficiency Rating. The higher the EER, the more efficient the unit is. ENERGY STAR units are among the most energy-efficient products and exceed minimum federal standards by at least 15 . Two major decisions should guide your purchase. Buy a correctly sized unit Buy an energy-efficient unit SEER is the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating. SEER rates the efficiency during the cooling season. Look for a SEER rating of 12 or above. Air conditioners that bear the ENERGY STAR label are at least 20 more efficient than new air conditioners that meet the federal minimum standards for efficiency and may be twice as efficient as some existing systems. Contact a professional for advice on sizing a central air system. If you live in a cool climate, look for a heat pump with a high HSPF. If you purchase an ENERGY STAR heat...

Enforcing Building Codes

The seventh five-year plan, from 1986 to 1990, initiated the goal of energy conservation in buildings. The MOC developed a five percent tax incentive for energy-efficient construction. Energy efficiency was not well defined, however, and nearly all building managers found some way to qualify. The end result was a negligible increase in energy efficiency, and the tax incentive was dropped in 1998. Energy-efficient building design also need more education about ways to achieve energy efficiency, comfort, and good indoor air quality. Enforcement of regulations is a primary concern. On-site measurement of buildings designated as energy saving shows that 80 percent exceed the energy-consumption limitations of energy codes (Zhu and Lin 2004). Some codes exist, but their correct implementation is left to the design institutes (architectural firms). The design institutes must insure that the designs meet the codes. However, there is little, if any, inspection of the actual construction...

Light And Shading

Daylighting is usually considered an attractive option for illuminating interior spaces in buildings because it is to a large extent cost-free. There is no need to generate electricity, with its attendant emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants, and no need for the end user to pay for that electricity to power electric lights. The infrastructure for lighting - from the generation station to the lamp - must be purchased for use at night and perhaps during overcast conditions, with the result that capital costs for electric lighting are unchanged. Daylighting however, can substantially reduce energy consumption for lighting and can also reduce peak electricity demand. The design of electric lighting systems makes use of the same tools as those presented for daylighting the lumen-cavity method or more flexible, powerful, and complex radiosity or ray-tracing methods. Energy consumption Figure 12 shows the SkyCalc input screen. Figure 13 shows the variation of indoor illuminance...

Case Studies

The aim of these case studies was to develop designs and technologies at a sufficiently detailed level to be integrated into a wide range of high-density low-rise and high-rise residential projects. The primary goal was to develop sustainable designs that would reduce energy consumption. Passive-based environmental principles were deployed that offer the greatest economic potential based upon an understanding of the prevailing climate. In addition to addressing the ecological and environmental concerns associated with energy-efficient housing, the case studies sought to provide for rich and diverse spaces that both catered to the residents' needs, and encouraged the development of community interaction. A general outline of the typical design process is as follows

Thermal Comfort

Understanding what range of temperatures is considered by building occupants to be comfortable is an important first step in predicting building-energy consumption. This will help identify how such opportunities as using natural ventilation in lieu of vapor-compression cooling affect energy savings and the comfort of the occupants.


Support Vector Machine Radar

Studies are now underway to gauge the Chinese consumer's receptivity to sustainable design features. As the number of privately owned units increases, and as residents become responsible for the operating and maintenance costs, the homebuyer should become more concerned with such design features. The importance of energy efficiency will increase if space-heating costs reflect actual costs to individual units. Developers and designers comprise the supply side of the residential market. Arguably, the most important factors to energy consumption are decided in the design phases of a project. Investments in design and construction offer many benefits decreased utility consumption, increased comfort, decreased expenditures for occupants, and lower air-pollutant emissions. Residential building developers in China are receptive to the inclusion of sustainable features in their new projects. However, it is difficult for the developers and their designers to define what this entails. Designers...

Wall Construction

Along with properly specifying thermal resistance and mass barrier materials, the proper construction and inspection of exterior walls is the key link in the process of producing energy-efficient buildings. Currently, China does not properly inspect new construction. In recent years, the Ministry of Construction has been struggling to contend with the rush of residential building development by speculators interested in capitalizing on the young and growing market. Specifications relating to proper construction and best practice, both prescriptive and performance based, have been written and adopted. However, enforcement of these standards is still very much a challenge that threatens to frustrate the aspirations for the construction of low-energy buildings. The reasons for this difficulty reside in the political, economic, and cultural status quo and pose what may be the Achilles heel of delivering low-energy buildings within the next few years (Glicksman, Norford and Greden 2001)...

Energy Summit

The ZGF team created a tailored shading plan for the L-shaped masses. Exterior horizontal shades and an Interior light shelf with automated horizontal blinds In the daylighting zone manage the direct sunlight In the building's south portion. On the north wing, the exterior shading elements and Interior blinds are vertical In orientation to diffuse northern light. Lighting controls measure the amount of daylight present and dim electric lights accordingly to reduce energy consumption. ZGF and the Center for the Built Environment (CBE) at University of California, Berkeley, conducted a post-occupancy evaluation that showed occupants found the daylighting and lighting control strategies to be successful.

By Heidi Moore

The house they settled on was a 1,700-square-foot Cape Cod structure in the city's Highland Park neighborhood, about a half-mile from the Mississippi River and within easy walking distance of schools, shops, and public transportation. The one-and-a-half-story home had been well-main-talned, but the couple desired an updated kitchen, additional bedrooms for their three children, and more open and flexible common areas suitable for entertaining, along with energy-saving features and sustainable materials throughout. a contractor, and energy modelers to design a structure that preserved the original foundation of the house, as well as most of the main floor. They expanded upward, removing the original gabled roof and building out a second story, along with a modest 620-square-foot addition on the northwest side. The resulting high-performance, energy-efficient, 3,200-square-foot home boasts four bedrooms, an office for Flynn on the main floor that can double as a large fifth bedroom, and...


Energy simulations showed that proper ventilation during spring and fall could save up to 30 percent in annual energy usage if used at the correct times. Wind-driven ventilation alone will give between 0 and 30 ACH, depending on the direction of the wind during spring and fall months (shown in the wind rose in Figure 18) ad the unit's location (Figure19 and Table 4). Natural ventilation is a valuable tool for an energy-efficient residential unit. Unfortunately, wind is often unreliable, and is also often inhibited by adjacent buildings. Large exhaust fans should therefore be installed in each unit to limit the need for air-conditioning when wind alone does not produce enough natural ventilation. These fans would provide an average hourly air change rate of 36 (for a 100 m2 x 3 meter high unit, that means 3 m3 s through the fan). The cooling load was calculated as an average for the six months of March through May and September through November.


The development of the Chinese economy encourages the demand for higher living standards in China. Larger homes and improved comfort standards are leading to much higher energy consumption. Although modern life will not accept the comfort levels of the past, it is still possible to apply traditional technologies to modern designs to reduce or eliminate discomfort during extremes in summer and winter. China needs to encourage energy efficiency in new buildings. New housing codes alone will not meet this need. Demonstration projects of affordable energy-efficient buildings will help. More careful enforcement of housing codes is essential.


Masonry walls without added insulation. Figures 2 and 3 illustrate several scenarios for meeting the heating needs of these buildings. In one scenario, new power plants are constructed that supply heat pumps in the buildings without modifying the wall construction. These are compared to scenarios in which insulation is added to the interior walls. Not only is the energy consumption of the upgraded buildings substantially reduced (Figure 2), the first cost for the insulation is less than the savings in first cost for the new power plants. For example, the additional construction cost of adding five centimeters of insulation to a brick wall is US 36 per square meter of wall area. At the same time, the demand for heating energy is reduced so that the required power plant is smaller, saving the equivalent of US 56 per square meter of wall area. In addition to the savings in first cost for the combined building and power plant construction, the added insulation would save US 86 in...

Series 2 Simulations

Simulations 7 through 10 explored variations of reduced internal gains and night-only ventilation, all with the drastic control of solar gains. Simulation 7 showed that reducing Internal gains to 50 percent of the base case had substantially less Impact than shifting the ventilation strategy from around-the-clock to night-only. Our estimate of Internal gains for the base case was not grounded In measurements in Chinese buildings, and this seventh simulation could be considered an exploration of uncertainty as much as an energy-conservation strategy. Based on personal observations In China, there is some opportunity to reduce internal gains through more efficient lights and appliances. Simulation 8 combined lower Internal gains and night ventilation to leave less than one percent uncomfortable hours. Simulation 9 showed that eliminating Internal gains altogether but continuously ventilating the building yields three percent hot hours. Simulation 10 combined previous measures - the...

Project Background

As environmental concerns become more Important at the local, regional, and global level, more awareness must be paid to the development of sustainable buildings. Buildings are accountable for a large portion of resources and energy in addition to producing a substantial amount of environmental pollutants. The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has made the Increase of energy efficiency in China vital to the general goal of sustainable world development. The aim of the Sustainable Urban Housing In China Project Is to identify design processes that utilize new technologies and new applications of existing technologies that will significantly Increase the efficiency of new and renovated Chinese buildings. In addition, strategies for energy efficiency should be appealing to Chinese builders and consumers when they become aware of the advantages In using such strategies. The research grew from an agreement between MIT faculty, AGS colleagues, and developers and design institutes at...


Policy must create demand for energy conservation and sustainability in the housing market from all angles by mandating and enforcing codes and standards, by creating real market prices for energy use, and by educating consumers. Removing subsidies from energy costs and charging each residence for individual electricity and heating use would also make individuals more conscious of energy efficiency. This must be instituted with care to reduce dislocation for those in the lowest income level. If current construction met the requirements of recent Chinese building codes, the country would make considerable progress. Stricter building codes will only be effective when they are coupled with stronger inspection and enforcement. In the current system, design institutes staffed by architects are responsible for producing designs that conform to the building codes in areas such as energy efficiency. Unfortunately, there is little if any government inspection of projects during construction or...


The primary goal of the software design tool called Building Energy Calculator is to guide consumers, developers and architects toward more energy-efficient buildings. The software is included with the CD at the back of the book, and Figure 1 shows the program interface. The program was written by Jonathan Smith at MIT. Mr. Smith and MIT hold the copyright. Users are free to use the software but may not charge others for copies or charge a fee to others for its use. For a quick start of the program, turn to the section entitled Installing the Program. side comparison of different scenarios. The relative strength of one design compared to another in term of energy efficiency should be readily apparent from the output of the program. Creating a program following these guiding principles requires making simplifying assumptions and using typical values for many parameters. Simplifications of this sort are appropriate since the goal of the program is to provide rough estimates that guide...


Creating connections between community activities and the natural landscape was a major theme in the planning. Taking the definition of sustainability beyond energy conservation, the MIT team considered social and urban sustainability, defined as the preservation of the natural environment for ecological, psychological, and sociological benefits. Gardens, open green spaces, groves


The building sector has an important impact on air pollution, solid waste generation, water consumption, and wastewater production. Much of this is tied to the by-product of energy generation. In the developed world, people spend 90 percent of the time inside buildings. One means to reduce energy consumption in buildings is to reduce ventilation rates from outdoors. Occupants of many new commercial buildings suffer from deteriorating indoor air quality. The challenge is to develop sustainable buildings that reduce waste emissions to the outside while simultaneously improving environmental quality within the building. There are new technologies that will meet both requirements. Examples will be presented in later chapters.

Energy Studies

It was determined that there was a substantial increase in energy efficiency when moving from the low quality, low insulated building to the high quality, highly insulated building. The seasonal heating energy was reduced from 161 kWh m2 to 35 kWh m2 (Figure 4). Note when single-glazed windows were used with low-quality construction and the same infiltration rate, the heating Figure 5 shows the heating energy for six options, three levels of construction quality, and two levels of insulation. Starting with low construction quality, the largest improvement in energy efficiency was obtained by reducing the infiltration rate through better construction quality and better building products. Improving the insulation level on a poorly constructed building had a smaller influence.


In the Western world, building operations account for about one-third of the annual energy consumption. Figure 1 shows the energy consumption in the major sectors of the United States. It is surprising to many observers that over the last several decades, the combination of residential and commercial buildings has consumed more energy than the sum of all forms of transportation in the United States. In China, it is estimated that the construction industry accounts for 37 percent of national energy use (Asia Pulse 2006). Buildings also consume well over half of all electricity and are the major source of summertime peak loads and shortages that can cause brownouts. In megacities, the energy consumed ultimately results in heat rejection to the local environment, creating heat islands that exacerbate summertime cooling requirements. The substantial energy consumption not only depletes energy supplies, but the energy consumption and power production produces carbon dioxide, a major source...


Climatic conditions are the starting point for any design process interested in energy efficiency. Climatic conditions vary widely through the year between Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. Winter temperatures in Beijing are substantially lower than Shanghai, down to -10 C, while Shanghai records only a few dates with temperatures below freezing. Both cities record hot and humid summers, with temperatures somewhat higher in Shanghai. Shenzhen has a more intense cooling season than the other two cities and very modest heating requirements.

Air Barriers

Air leakage is the most important problem to address in under-performing exterior envelopes. Air leakage is a major contributor to both heat loss and water vapor infiltration, thus increasing energy consumption and decreasing building durability. Consider the fact that concrete block, one of the most commonly used exterior wall materials in China, leaks air at the rate of 3.4 liters s m2 under a pressure differential of 25 Pa. In a room measuring 3 m x 3 m x 3 m, the air would be changed in a mere 15 minutes (Brand 1991) For older buildings, air infiltration has also proven to be the single most important challenge in achieving significant energy efficiency. Applying barrier materials to these buildings is a much more difficult challenge. The problems of adding a barrier material into an older exterior envelope usually consist of durability issues, detail inconsistencies, and many other unanticipated material and construction problems. In these buildings, the retrofit of insulating...

The Role of Policy

On a national level, historical efforts to improve energy efficiency in the residential arena pale beside reform of industrial initiatives. The growth of the residential sector is very significant, however. For example, while the residential sector consumed only 12 percent of the total supply of electricity in 2002, this grew from 7 percent in 1990. In 2002, the residential sector comprised 11 percent of the total Chinese energy consumption (China Statistical Yearbook 2004). A small but significant group is leading work to improve the energy efficiency The MOC's Office of Building Energy Efficiency, responsible for implementing the national Energy Conservation Law of 1997, is developing prescriptive codes for energy conservation in new residential buildings. These design standards impose maximum heat transfer coefficients for building envelopes based on region, and guidelines for heating system design. Additionally, the MOC is organizing an educational plan that includes a textbook...


This project was centered on the design of several mid-rise buildings for the Taidong Residential Quarter in Shanghai. The design was a collaborative effort of MIT's Sustainable Urban Housing in China Group and Tongji University's Construction Engineering Department and Architectural Design and Research Institute.The process was informed by a number of design and technology factors, including the results of energy studies, urban design concepts, as well as daylighting and ventilation studies. The primary goal of the design was to minimize the energy use of mechanical equipment and resultant costs through the use of improved building standards and energy-efficient details. Design decisions were made using guidelines from the findings of daylighting, ventilation, and energy studies that analyzed various architectural schemes and features. In addition, every effort was made to make comfortable and livable spaces that were unique to the typical landscape of Shanghai's urban development....


The EnergyGuide label on new refrigerators will tell you how much electricity in kilowatt-hours (kWh) a particular model uses in one year. The smaller the number, the less energy the refrigerator uses and the less it will cost you to operate. In addition to the EnergyGuide label, don't forget to look for the ENERGY STAR label. A new refrigerator with an ENERGY STAR label will save you between 35 and 70 a year compared to the models designed 15 years


Most of the energy used by a dishwasher is for water heating. The EnergyGuide label estimates how much power is needed per year to run the appliance and to heat the water based on the yearly cost of gas and electric water heating. When it is time to buy a new unit, look for the ENERGY STAR label.


Carefully positioned trees can save up to 25 of a typical household's energy for heating and cooling. Computer models from DOE predict that just three trees, properly placed around the house, can save an average household between 100 and 250 in heating and cooling energy costs annually. During the summer months, the most effective way to keep your home cool is to prevent the heat from building up in the first place. A primary source of heat buildup is Trees that lose their leaves in the fall (i.e., deciduous) are the most effective at reducing heating and cooling energy costs. When selectively placed around a house, they provide excellent protection from the summer sun but permit winter sunlight to reach and warm your house. The height, growth rate, branch spread, and shape are all factors to consider in choosing Orientation of the house and surrounding landscaping has a large effect on energy consumption. A well-oriented, well-designed home admits low-angle winter sun to reduce...

Indoor Lighting

Use linear fluorescent and energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in fixtures throughout your home to provide high-quality and high-efficiency lighting. Fluorescent lamps are much more efficient than incandescent bulbs and last 6 to 10 times longer. Although fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps are more expensive than incandescent bulbs, they pay for themselves by saving energy over their lifetime. These compact fluorescent bulbs are four times more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs and provide the same lighting. If you have torchiere fixtures with halogen lamps, consider replacing them with compact fluorescent torchieres. Compact fluorescent torchieres use 60 to 80 less energy and can produce more light (lumens) than the halogen torchieres. Look for the ENERGY STAR label

The Authors

Leon Glieksman (coeditor) is a professor of Building Technology and Mechanical Engineering and has been the head of MIT's Building Technology Program In the Department of Architecture for the past 17 years. He has worked on research and consulting related to energy-efficient building components and design, Indoor airflow, and Indoor air quality. He developed the simulation program for heat pumps that forms the basis for one of the most popular heat pump programs available today. He did basic studies to improve thermal Insulation for buildings during the period when CFCs were removed from insulation. He coheads a joint study with Cambridge University researching the use of natural ventilation in buildings to improve Indoor air quality and reduce energy used for air-conditioning. Glieksman and coworkers are developing a website for advanced envelope systems that can be easily used by architects and developers In the early stages of design. He is the author of over 200 papers In the area...

Heat Pumps

If you use electricity to heat your home, consider installing an energy-efficient heat pump system. Heat pumps are the most efficient form of electric heating in moderate climates, providing three times more heating than the equivalent amount of energy they consume in electricity. There are three types of heat pumps air-to-air, water source, and ground source. They collect heat from

Buying New Windows

New windows are long-term investments that have a large impact on your home's energy systems. Today, there are many new window technologies available that are worth considering. Glazing materials now come with a variety of selective coatings and other features frames are available in aluminum, wood, vinyl, fiber glass, or combinations of these materials. Each type of glazing material and frame has advantages and disadvantages. ENERGY STAR , (888) STAR-YES (782-7937), www.energystar.gov U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC), (800) DOE-EREC (3633732), www.eren.doe.gov

Heating and Cooling

No matter what kind of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system you have in your house, you can save money and increase comfort by properly maintaining and upgrading your equipment. But remember, an energy-efficient furnace alone will not have as great an impact on your energy bills as using the whole-house approach. By combining proper equipment maintenance and upgrades with appropriate insulation, weatherization, and thermostat settings, you can cut your energy bills and your pollution output in half.

Upcoming Awards

You've always aspired to be the best. And now that energy efficiency has become so vital, choosing Johns Manville is a must. JM tests and retests insulation products to ensure superior performance performance that increases energy efficiency while reducing operating costs and C02 emissions. We can also help you improve indoor air quality with JM Formaldehyde-free fiber glass building insulation. And if you need custom support, you can count on the JMTechnical Center for advanced building science expertise. So, next time you want to achieve superior energy efficiency, don't forget the most important detail of all. Specify JM.

Private sector housing the local authority role

Perhaps as a response to this, but also seen across other public sector services, there has been increased central guidance on housing action at local level. This includes the key document, Department of the Environment Circular 17 96, Private Sector Renewal A Strategic Approach (DoE 1996). Such guidance encourages the use of private sector stock in innovative and proactive ways, such as making greater use of vacant properties and encouraging domestic energy efficiency. The government is currently seeking consultation on its Green Paper, Quality and Choice A Decent Home for All, published in April 2000, to bring forward new housing initiatives, with a renewed emphasis on developing and delivering local strategies that meet the local need (DETR 2000). The government's current housing objectives are set out in Table 1.3. UK's leading centre for construction and fire expertise and consultancy. BRECSU researches and publishes independent advice on energy efficiency in buildings on behalf...

Insist On The Original

There is another anti global warming movement gaining momentum. An ad hoc group made up in part of energy company executives, energy policy experts, economists, scientists, and energy policy commentators met in 1998 to develop a set of accelerated solutions to the global climate crisis.

Heat distribution for highperformance housing

Due to the low space heating demand of high-performance houses, heat production must be simple and with low capital costs. Producing heat collectively for many houses saves having to buy and maintain a system in each individual house. The extremely low energy demand leads to special requirements for such a district heating system.

Parade Of Removated Tomes

This house, featured on the cover of Home Makeover's February 2009 issue as a finalist in the Georgie Awards, received a complete renovation, inside and out. One thousand square feet of extra space was created through additions to the top floor and existing garage. A new kitchen is part of the main-floor makeover. The house is now a model of green construction and design, featuring energy-saving windows, doors and skylights, a high-efficiency heating system and the use of sustainable materials, including concrete siding and locally sourced building materials.

Letters to Home Power

Well, our Hydro editor Paul Cunningham runs Energy Systems and Design, POB 1557, Sussex, New Brunswick, Canada E0E 1P0. One of his specialties is using car alternators in low head hydro situations. Write him for info and we'll get an article about this into the pipeline. I don't have any particular data on the efficiency of this Ford alternator. The efficiency of an alternator can be estimated visually by looking at two things. One, the diameter of the wire composing the stator, and Two,the overall diameter of the stator. The larger wire and the bigger overall diameter gives the alternator more efficiency. Our use of Delco and Chrysler alternators has proven to us that there is in fact great efficiency differences be different makes and models. This is a subject for an future article detailing what makes up an efficient alternator and why, complete with side by side testing of various makes and models. Right now, the hottest alternator I know of is the 100 ampere Chrysler model that...

Daybreak Energy for Your

I have assembled my own PV panel from surplus 4 square cells which I got at a Hamfest. I also built a wind generator from an old permanent magnet generator from a gasoline power plant originally 2500 watts. I carved a prop from a 10 ft. 2 x 6 and built an air brake like the one used on Windchargers. It works great. I have started building a second wind generator but ENERGY SYSTEMS AND DESIGN PXV f r., Canada E0E 1P0

Chief Financial Officer

Something attractive and modem Or, durable and sustainable If a picture is worth a thousand words, then this one only tells part of the story. You see, MBCI metal panels are not just attractive, they work hard too. Our panels are resilient and have a longer life expectancy than most conventional materials, oftentimes resulting in better life cycle costs. MBCI panels are comprised of recycled steel and are virtually 100 recyclable. Our vast selection of cool roof colors holds superior SRI values that can lower energy consumption. In addition, MBCI's Eco-ficient insulated metal panels and NuRooP retrofit systems offer a number of green building attributes that improve a building's performance while reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Opaque building envelope

Dart Spielplan Gegen

This reduction has been halved again by high-performance houses. The transmission losses of a typical house (with 1.5 to 2.0 m2 of building envelope per m2 heated floor area) can be expected to be less than 0.3 W K per m2 floor area. Air leakage and natural ventilation losses can amount to 0.4 W m2K. These can be reduced to as low as 0.1 W m2K by making the envelope air tight and adding an energy efficient ventilation system. The resulting total losses due to transmission and ventilation can then be as low as 0.3 and 0.5 W K per m2 of heated floor area, as can be seen in Figure 9.1.1. Figure 9.1.3 Improved lightweight constructions (a) energy-optimized construction of the external wall of a low energy house (b) vertical section through the external wall Figure 9.1.3 Improved lightweight constructions (a) energy-optimized construction of the external wall of a low energy house (b) vertical section through the external wall Figure 9.1.11. This allows much slimmer constructions for...

Learn Photovoltaic Design Installation

This Workshop Seminar is for those interested in solar electricity for their own applications or those pursuing a career in PVs. Previous trainees have included licensed electricians, solar technicians, energy efficiency professionals, PV industry trainers, researchers, entrepreneurs, and end users. Everyone from professionals to do-it-yourselfers can learn and benefit from this training. Graduates are employed in PV installation, design, sales, manufacturing, management and training. To date over 400 people have completed this program.

Your Design Evolution

Beautify Your Projects with Energy Efficient Insulated Metal Panels by IPS IPS is committed to providing high quality, environmentally sound products that are both appealing to the eye and ideal for highperformance green building construction. IPS panels contribute toward LEED Certification, which is becoming a requirement for many federal, state and municipal building projects. With our panels, you can beautify a project and provide owners with buildings offering optimized energy performance and reduced energy consumption. Call us today to learn about all of the Other than energy savings, the main market driver behind increased use of ERV technology is the impact of codes and standards. ASHRAE Standard 62.1, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, from the Atlanta-based American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, is a major pillar of the International Mechanical Code from the Washington, D.C-based International Code Council and the U.S. Green...

See title verso for ISBN details

Peter Land is Professor of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. Educated at the Architectural Association in London, Yale University and Carnegie Mellon University, his research interests include high-density housing, low-energy design and courtyard typologies. He was the UN Chief Architect for the Lima Experimental Housing Project in Peru which features a neighbourhood of 450 courtyard houses.

Are Photovoltaics Right for Me

The Smiths are also not pleased with the idea of a noisy generator running all the time. Noise is one thing they are moving to the country to get away from. The Smiths' property has neither wind or water power potential. Mr. Smith asks a company that specializes in alternative energy systems what his options are.

Window air conditioners

These self-contained units have all the working parts in one module. They perform less efficiendy than central units and are the least energy-efficient choice since they run on regular household circuits. As well, they can be noisy, allow air or water to leak in, and are a security risk. However, if you need to cool only the living room or a bedroom, or if a larger system is not feasible, they can do the job with less cost and overall energy consumption.

What Are the Options

It can pay to consider the alternatives before you invest in air conditioning. In many cases, you can make your house comfortable in summer without the expense and energy consumption of an air conditioning system. Install energy-efficient windows Windows with tight air seals and special solar control coatings that block some of the sun's rays can help protect you from heat as well as cold.

Minimizing the Effect on the Environment

Energy efficiency and reducing fossil fuel consumption. You can install a high-efficiency furnace that gives off fewer combustion gases. You can avoid adding to toxins to our water and land by safely disposing of paints, stains and chemicals, for example. Renovating with Healthy Housing in mind makes sense, but only if it's practical and affordable. There are growing numbers of healthy and energy-efficient building products on the market, and in many cases,

Comparing air conditioners

When considering an air conditioner, look first at its efficiency, as expressed by its seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) rating. The higher the number, the less electricity it will consume however, the price is likely to be higher as well. Try to look at several models and ask for the manufacturer's literature on the models you're considering.

Parade Of Renovated Homes

Bathrooms and the kitchen were in their original state. The kitchen and family room have been completely redone, with white maple cabinets, granite countertops, a glasstile backsplash, frosted-glass door cabinets and porcelain floor tiles with in-floor radiant heat. An entertainment system was added in the adjoining family room. Windows and doors were upgraded to Energy Star-rated units. Both bathrooms were updated with limestone-floored shower stalls, and a magnificent claw-foot bathtub, surrounded by granite, was installed in the master bath. The front entry and sidewalk complete the overall renovation to create a modern, welcoming home.

Partner With The Pros

We've batted around the mass-production idea with Homeway, and it comes down to math and having a clear business plan, Chapman says. If Gable Home is something that can make a profit, they may consider selling it. He adds that Homeway representatives have said that, even though the company works hard to create energy-efficient modular homes, working on Solar Decathlon has stretched what it had done up to now. For mass marketability, we'd like to work with them again on a house that would probably be more efficient than what they normally construct, but probably not as extreme as was we've done for Solar Decathlon.

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