Multi Family Villas

Buildings J, K, M, L, N, and 0 were located at the eastern edge of the site. These weresmall buildings with a height of four stories each, oriented east-west, consisting of two units each. They played an important role in defining the eastern edge of the phase IV development, while allowing winds from the east to penetrate through the rest of the site. Areas ranged from 96 to 112 square meters (Figures 34 and 35). Figure 30 Plans of building D (building E similar), from top to bottom roof plan,...

Experience with Appliances

Encouraging the use of energy-efficient appliances requires that standards be introduced and that consumers are aware of energy efficiency. Several energy efficiency programs have been introduced in China to date, with mixed success.The China Green Lights program addresses two major barriers to reform, the high initial cost of efficient technologies and poor quality of some of the products manufactured in China. Screw-in compact fluorescent lights have been observed to fail very prematurely,...

Design Principles For Sustainable Urban Housing In China

THE OBJECTIVES OF SUSTAINABILITY WHAT ARE WE TRYING TO ACHIEVE New urban housing in various areas of urban Chinese cities appears at first review to be relatively unsustainable. Poor performance of the building fabric, a lack of responsiveness in the design to the harshness and forces of the climate, and an absence of a relationship of housing areas to an urban transportation infrastructure stay in one's mind as significant deficiencies in a more comprehensive environmental strategy. As an...

Recommendations for Windows and Walls

As shown in Table 2, solar gain through windows accounts for approximately 40 percent of the total cooling energy load for a base case unit in Shenzhen. Over a year, the energy from direct sunlight per area incident on all building surfaces (north, south, east, and west) totaled nearly 2.53 MWh 2. Northern windows received 3 percent of the total direct annual solar energy per area, while southern windows received 33 percent, and western and eastern facing windows each received 32 percent (64...

Quarter

This project was centered on the design of several mid-rise buildings for the Taidong Residential Quarter in Shanghai. The design was a collaborative effort of MIT's Sustainable Urban Housing in China Group and Tongji University's Construction Engineering Department and Architectural Design and Research Institute.The process was informed by a number of design and technology factors, including the results of energy studies, urban design concepts, as well as daylighting and ventilation studies....

Floor Finishes

The concrete floor slab, representing a large thermal mass, could store solar energy during the day for release later at night. This would utilize excess solar energy at night that otherwise would not be harnessed, and could help to reduce peak heating loads late at night. However, heat transfer to and from the slab could be hampered by the use of insulating finishing materials such as carpet or woods, as shown in Figure 17. Though the heating rate from the floor was substantially improved when...

The Role of Policy

On a national level, historical efforts to improve energy efficiency in the residential arena pale beside reform of industrial initiatives. The growth of the residential sector is very significant, however. For example, while the residential sector consumed only 12 percent of the total supply of electricity in 2002, this grew from 7 percent in 1990. In 2002, the residential sector comprised 11 percent of the total Chinese energy consumption (China Statistical Yearbook 2004). A small but...

New Living Environment

Sustainability is an urban issue as well as a global issue. Land is one of the most limited resources on earth. Power, water, waste, and the like are all integral parts of the city infrastructure. Pollution, a byproduct of energy consumption, local, regional, as well as global impacts, is an international disaster. For a better tomorrow, sustainability has to be achieved, and it can be achieved with new architecture and new lifestyles as its catalysts and by-products. Hopefully this book will...

Acknowledgments

Portions of this chapter are reproduced with permission from Elsevier from the paper Carrilho da Graga, G., Q. Chen, L. Glicksman and L. Norford. 2002. Simulation of Wind-Driven Ventilative Cooling Systems for an Apartment Building in Beijing and Shanghai. Energy and Buildings 34(1) 1-11. The author would also like to acknowledge use of the following paper in this chapter Norford, L., L. Caldas, J. Kaufman, L. Glicksman, A. Scott and Q. Chen. 1999. Opportunities to Maintain Thermal Comfort in...

Air Barriers

Air leakage is the most important problem to address in under-performing exterior envelopes. Air leakage is a major contributor to both heat loss and water vapor infiltration, thus increasing energy consumption and decreasing building durability. Consider the fact that concrete block, one of the most commonly used exterior wall materials in China, leaks air at the rate of 3.4 liters s m2 under a pressure differential of 25 Pa. In a room measuring 3 m x 3 m x 3 m, the air would be changed in a...

Air Conditioner

Occupants should be encouraged to buy efficient air conditioners. The units should have a minimum COP of three (COP heat extracted (W) electricity input (W)). Air conditioners that have too much capacity (W) operate inefficiently. Energy calculations indicated that air conditioners should be sized at 100 W m2. The required capacity was based on floor area of the unit, insulating qualities of the windows and walls, and the degree of shading of the windows from direct sun during the hottest part...

Architectural Design Site Considerations

The site design illustrated in this section provides a number of strategies for reducing energy consumption. Like many of the buildings in the other Shenzhen Wonderland phases, the buildings were oriented to provide high levels of north-south exposure in order to maximize shading. This orientation increased the amount of solar gain in the winter, and the high sun angle in the summer required only slight overhangs to counteract the hot summer sun. Along the east and west axis, the edges were...

Architectural Form

The goal of the formal architectural expression was to create a contextually unique environment that fosters a diverse community. This was achieved by juxtaposing units of different sizes and qualities within many of the buildings. With respect to sustainable design, specific attention was paid to directional differences within the building composition. The east side, though sometimes hot, exploits the primary natural airflow. The south and north sides were more interchangeable with respect to...

Assemblies For Improved Buildings

Assemblies in China suffer from primitive construction methods and a lack of premanufactured and automated assembly, enforcement of building standards and suitable regulated supervision, and quality control on the construction site. While there is a great deal of interest in improving methods and the results of construction, the typical Chinese residential building is rife with ineffective insulation (if insulation is even used ), air barrier and sealant discontinuities, wide-ranging...

Assessing Sustainability How Do We Know It Works

As sustainability has become a familiar word in the architectural language of practice, many questions remain about how a particular project, rightly or wrongly, claims its environmental credentials. Sometimes the sustainability factor is retrospective because the assessment method that substantiates a project was not integral to the design process. On the other hand, often the assessment method becomes the driver for establishing a set of objectives or goals, and creates for the owner or users...

Building Form And Typology

Figure 34 Hui Long Guan C02 courtyard diagram Figure 35 Hui Long Guan C02 cluster landscape Figure 35 Hui Long Guan C02 cluster landscape With most of our design projects in China, there is an intermediate design scale between the urban plan and that of the dwelling unit. It is the scale of the building block or cluster, which mediates the ideas of the site plan to the operation, mechanics, and technology of the house. This scale of the building cluster or building typology embodies ideas about...

C02 Development Parcel Community

The existing architectural style of Beijing Hui Long Guan was that of a very large development consisting of numerous similar buildings with little relation to human scale. In Beijing, developers often build uniform six-story row-house-type buildings to maximize the building height without the requirement of elevators. The goal of the MIT design was to avoid the row housing typology in which the site contains no defined private or public spaces. Instead, the design should create a sense of a...

C06 Development Parcel Community

During the design process, Tian Hong changed the project site from C02 to C06. Many of the goals and objectives discussed earlier for C02 were applied to the development of the site plan for C06. A total of 1,500 residences consisting of 148,000 square meters were designed. The new site was located to the southeast of C02 (Figure 32). Similar high-density residential developments occur to the east and west. The area to the north of the site was not yet planned and was a generally flat,...

Cfd Simulations

The design of the site plan for Shenzhen Wonderland phase IV was informed regularly with exterior CFD and sun studies that measured the performance of the different design alternatives in terms of wind flow and sun movement. The primary goals were to optimize the use of wind and daylighting while minimizing heat gain. The high-density low-rise solution, which was adopted from the beginning, was appropriate for the achievement of both of these goals. This final site plan design performed well in...

Chapter Five Energy in Building Design

Chapter logo - Beijing wind rose image by MIT China Workshop Figure 2, Table 1 - Climate data images by MIT China Workshop Figures 4-9, Tables 2-3 - Study 1 Beijing images by MIT China Workshop Figures 10-11 - Study 1 Shanghai images by MIT China Workshop Figures 12 - Study 2 Beijing images by MIT China Workshop Figures 13-16 - Series I simulations images by MIT China Workshop Figures 19-28, Tables 4-5 - Study 3 Shenzhen images by MIT China Workshop

Chapter Fourteen Case Study Five Beijing Hui Long Guan

Chapter logo - Diagram of public spaces Image by MIT China Workshop Figure 1 - Hui Long Guan site plan showing C02 and C06 parcels image courtesy of Tian Hong Figure 2 - Typical building in Hui Long Guan photograph by MIT China Workshop Figure 3 - Row housing, typical of China photograph by Leon Glicksman Figures 4-18,Table 1 - Beijing Hui Long Guan energy studies images by MITChina Workshop Figure 19 - Images from China photographs by MIT China Workshop Figures 20-31 - Beijing Hui Long Guan...

Chapter Six Wind in Building Environment Design

Chapter logo - Northern winter winds buffered by trees image by MIT China Workshop Figure 4 - Wind tunnel model photograph courtesy of National University of Singapore Figure 5a - Stata Center model photograph courtesy of Frank 0. Gehry and Associates Figure 5b - Stata Center surroundings image courtesy of MIT Figures 6-7 - CFD images of MIT's Stata Center images courtesy of MIT Building Technology Group Figure 8- Beijing Star Garden residential development rendering courtesy of Beijing Vanke...

Chapter Three Design Principles

Chapter logo - Ventilation diagram of Beijing Hui Long Guan image by MIT China Workshop Figure 1 - Typical low-rise housing block in Beijing photograph by Andrew Scott Figure 2 - Shanghai urban landscape photograph courtesy of Mario Cipresso Figure 3 - Circular housing in Fujian photograph by Juintow Lin Figure 4 - Beijing courtyard housing photograph by Juintow Lin Figure 6- Wind tower in Kerman photograph courtesy of Conway Library, Courtauld Institute of Art, photograph by Robert Byron...

China Environment And Culture

Leon Glicksman, Leslie Norford, and Lara Greden As rapidly developing countries grow, they will consume a larger share of global resources and could produce damaging levels of emissions. In many countries, these problems are compounded by the concentration of the population in large cities. Densely populated areas accelerate the depletion of land and local resources. Figure 1 shows one estimate of the world consumption of energy and the projected consumption one century hence. Currently, a...

Climate

Climatic conditions are the starting point for any design process interested in energy efficiency. Climatic conditions vary widely through the year between Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. Winter temperatures in Beijing are substantially lower than Shanghai, down to -10 C, while Shanghai records only a few dates with temperatures below freezing. Both cities record hot and humid summers, with temperatures somewhat higher in Shanghai. Shenzhen has a more intense cooling season than the other two...

Climate Data

To narrow the simulation period for Beijing to warm weather, we examined a typical meteorological year (TMY) hourly weather file for Beijing temperature data is plotted in Figure 2. The hourly dry-bulb temperatures during warm months were similar to those obtained from the Medpha (Meteorological Data for HVAC Analysis) data available for Chinese cities and typically used by Chinese researchers (DeST 2006). Taking outdoor dry-bulb temperatures of 25 C as being sufficiently warm to assess passive...

Coal Price Deregulation

One reason for high unit energy consumption is that energy prices do not reflect actual production costs. When fuel prices are lower than production costs, subsidies are needed to maintain production levels. However, subsidization is costly for the government and taxpayers this leads to inefficiencies and discourages innovation. This scenario describes China's coal-based energy system. Energy is wasted when low energy costs discourage conservation. China has begun to address this problem by...

Combined Feature Simulations

The next set of simulations (simulations 1-3) centered on combining the upgraded features for optimally inclusive energy savings. The most feasible results were then identified from information gathered from the baseline parametric tests. A comparison of the baseline case versus the simulation of multiple upgrades is displayed in Figure 6. Table 2 describes the simulations and combined upgrades. It was found that by using a combination of the best upgrades, a savings of as much as 67 percent...

Concrete

Reinforced concrete is the primary structural material in China, as it is in much of the world today (Figures 5 and 6). It is also a primary material in vast expanses of exterior wall construction. Its choice is dependent on a large and inexpensive labor force, readily available quality constituent materials, and a lack of reasonable alternative materials and product diversity for construction. It is also a material that does not require exacting dimensional tolerances. However, the performance...

Current Policy in China Relevant to Residential Building Energy Efficiency

Policy must play a substantial role in implementing residential energy conservation measures. The most significant achievements to date in residential energy conservation have been achieved through standards and labeling programs for energy-efficient appliances. Currently, the slow adoption of new energy pricing systems, a lack of enforcement of building codes, and the scarcity of educational initiatives are all significant impediments to reform. The intentions of China's Energy Conservation...

Description of Building and Simulation Methodology

The study was undertaken in support of the design of multi-family, low-rise housing at a development, Beijing City Garden, near the Beijing airport. The developer had already constructed most of the buildings at this site but invited researchers at MIT and Tsinghua University to develop and analyze a design that would be more energy efficient. The site and the prospective location of the low-energy building are shown in Jiang et al (1999). To help guide the design process, we simulated an...

Design Methodology

This project focuses on the case studies of design and technology for demonstration buildings that incorporate energy-conservation features. One example is the consideration of natural ventilation to replace or reduce the need for air-conditioning. Many new residential construction projects in urban areas in China favor high-rise buildings. The widely cited reasons for this preference are code requirements for the separation of buildings and the overall cost of land. It is widely acknowledged...

Design Principles

The various Sustainable Urban Housing in China projects were developed by an integrated MIT team comprised of architects, graduate students, environmental engineers, building technologists, landscape architects, and urban planners. In addition, we worked in close collaboration with development companies, multidisciplinary design institutes, and mechanical and the relationship of building to site and climatic conditions light, orientation, wind, sun, and landscape the relationship of building to...

Determining Sizes of Overhangs and Fins

As shown in the technical recommendations (Tables 7 and 8), one of the most important upgrades was to add overhangs to windows. The MIT design team explored alternative overhang solutions and made recommendations to Vanke. For a window on the southern fa ade, the optimal overhang length was 20 percent of the height of the window, and the recommended length of vertical fins was 10 percent of the window width. Buildings built in previous phases of Shenzhen Wonderland already featured a design...

E

See Energy Conservation Design Standard ECL. See Energy Conservation Law e co -1 a b e I i n g 65, 66 ecocomposites 70 Ecolabel (E.U.) 13 ecological buildings 29 education 16, 241, 245 elastomeric 64 emissions carbon dioxide xix, 9, 45, 46, 49, 222 sulfur dioxide 9 energy 3, 9, 25, 30, 44, 51, 53, 55, 139, 228, 234, 240 conservation 9, 13, 15, 222, 242, 244, 245 construction 49, 68 consumption xix, 3, 5, 9-11, 15, 17, 20, 44-46, 48, 51, 54, 55, 57, 198, 212, 241 loss through...

Ecological Buildings Designing For Different Climates

An essential principle for the Sustainable Urban Housing in China Project is for the designs to respond to, and indeed harness, the local climatic conditions. This strategy could be described as being bioclimatic by working with the climatic forces instead of against them and making building forms that are responsive to the forces of wind, sun, and temperature (Figures 6 and 7). But in trying to make each project climatically responsive, one must also look at, and learn from, the different...

Education

Almost all of the developers, architects, and potential homebuyers encountered by the authors in China indicated that sustainable design was an important and desirable attribute of new homes. Developers have also included statements to that effect in their advertisements for new projects. In most cases however, the understanding of proper designs and technologies was severely limited. In some instances, developers and potential buyers limited their attention to visible attributes such as...

Encountering Sustainability In China

What I am writing is by no means a typical foreword. Instead of introducing the work of my colleagues in the Department of Architecture at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), I will use this opportunity to share my own limited but critical experience with the development of sustainability in China. However, I would like to point out that the authors of this book are among the pioneers for sustainability research and design in China, and they have helped to build the foundation of an...

Energy

In the Western world, building operations account for about one-third of the annual energy consumption. Figure 1 shows the energy consumption in the major sectors of the United States. It is surprising to many observers that over the last several decades, the combination of residential and commercial buildings has consumed more energy than the sum of all forms of transportation in the United States. In China, it is estimated that the construction industry accounts for 37 percent of national...

Energy Consumption and Global Warming

Minimizing the energy use needed to achieve desirable goals such as comfort, health, and pleasant surroundings is an important attribute of sustainable design. The consumption of coal, oil, and natural gas leads to the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere that is in turn tied to the danger of global warming. China's energy use has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Some studies suggest that within the next 30 to 40 years, China will equal or surpass the United States as the...

Energy Studies

MIT performed a series of energy simulations to determine the design improvements that should be recommended for the project. The energy analysis was performed using the Building Energy Calculator, available with this book. The MIT team analyzed three designs, based on a generic geometry of a 70 meter x 10 meter building oriented east-west. The building was six stories high, and the air temperature was the same throughout the building. All four sides of the building had 35 percent of the...

Environment

The building sector has an important impact on air pollution, solid waste generation, water consumption, and wastewater production. Much of this is tied to the by-product of energy generation. In the developed world, people spend 90 percent of the time inside buildings. One means to reduce energy consumption in buildings is to reduce ventilation rates from outdoors. Occupants of many new commercial buildings suffer from deteriorating indoor air quality. The challenge is to develop sustainable...

Equipment Efficiency and Occupant Habits

Simulations showed that further savings could be realized if high-performance air conditioners or heat pumps were installed. Simulations did not consider solar hot-water heating nor the benefits associated with an expanded thermal-comfort range. Figure 27 shows the savings associated with a number of individual actions, including orientation, insulation, ventilation, and window shading. Note that a building with east-west orientation uses about 15 percent more Ceiling Insulation Study on G ni x...

Evaluation of Specific Technologies

The research addressed a number of the most promising approaches to sustainable housing in China. The research team considered generic new designs and technologies that made use of solar heating, dehumidification, shading techniques, and other passive measures. Sustainability guidelines developed by the Swiss Federal Institute in Lausanne (EPFL), were used to carry out the evaluation. Based on that evaluation, the team considered promising systems for inclusion in demonstration projects. A...

Faade Treatment

As previously mentioned, the one of the developer's requirements was that all buildings have south-facing entrances. This, combined with the required density, encouraged the design of buildings oriented towards the south. The sun was shaded using deciduous trees and shading devices that protected interior spaces from the high-angle summer sunlight, while allowing the low-angle winter sun in. To optimize the performance of passive winter heating energy, overhangs were sized for all windows 75...

Formation of Partnerships

The faculty at MIT and AGS colleagues had numerous exchanges with Chinese colleagues. MIT faculty members and research fellows made numerous visits to China, visiting Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. We worked with architects at large design institutes and several major developers on specific new projects. The MIT and Tsinghua faculty have held well-attended seminars in Beijing and Shenzhen for interested designers, developers, equipment suppliers, and researchers, during which new sustainable...

Green Guidelines for Sustainable Housing in China

In August 2001, China took an important step toward the goal of sustainability in the housing sector with the publication of the voluntary Green Guidelines for Sustainable Housing in China. Developed within the context of China's stated long-term strategies for sustainable development, the objective of the guidelines is to realize sustainability in the housing sector through the following goals (Nie 2002) increased level of functionality and quality in housing promotion of advanced building...

H

From roof materials 55 solar 46, 88, 189 heat islands 3 high-rise 25, 104, 118, 126, 137, 146, 157, 158, 202, 213. See also Beijing Star Garden high-rise scheme homebuyers 245 housing market 47 privatization 47 urban 18 Hui Long Guan. See Beijing Hui Long Guan humidity 31 hutong 47 IAQ. See indoor air quality implementation 14, 242 incentives 243 India 8 indoor air quality xxii, 3, 9, 10, 11, 107, 114 indoor temperature 82, 86 inert gas filler 60 infiltration 56, 101 air 54, 57, 58 water 58...

Hierarchy of Public Spaces

The first step in the larger planning strategy was to establish the relationship between the public spaces outside of the development and the more private interface of the green spaces within the development. The design team further developed a hierarchy of public spaces and used building form and spacing to define various outdoor gathering areas (Figures 34 and 35). These spaces were articulated at a variety of scales for activities, ranging from large community gatherings to family picnics....

High Rise Sustainable Building

The MIT design workshop began to look at the design of a medium-rise building typology as an alternative to the all-too-common high-rise building blocks that scatter the new urban landscape in China where there is little responsiveness to orientation, sustainable construction techniques, and sustainable community ideas or reduced energy use. A proposal came out of the workshop for a tall linear building in Beijing that had four underlying ideas, listed below (see also Figures 39 and 40). Make...

Image Credits

The authors would like to express gratitude to all the students who contributed to the production of images for this publication, in addition to the photographers and institutions that have granted us permission to use their photographs. Most figures, including graphs and tables, have been altered from their original state, and have been redrawn by Juintow Lin, Michael Fox, and Anshuman Khanna to be suitable for this publication. While every reasonable effort has been made to trace copyright...

Input Description

A variety of cities in China and the United States are available in the dropdown list. The selection made in this box determines which weather data file is used in the simulations. If the city in which the building is located is not available from the list, a city with a similar climate can be selected for very rough estimates of building energy use.

Insulation Materials

The primary material system for resisting heat flow through the exterior envelope is insulation. All materials in the exterior envelope contribute to the thermal resistance of the wall. However, in walls with good insulation, the great majority of its overall thermal resistance (75-90 percent) is due to this insulating material. For example, the thermal resistance of a good insulator, such as a glass-fiber batt blanket, is 40 times that of a typical concrete. In China, the first step in...

Insulation Type

There are many different types of insulation that are used in buildings, and they have varying levels of performance. Foam insulation is the most common type in buildings that have concrete frames. The insulation type input allows the user to choose between four different types of insulation, and the selection sets the thermal conductivity, k, for the primary insulation layer. The available options are foam (0.025 W mK), glass fiber (0.036 W mK), loose fill cellulose (0.042 W mK), and cement...

Integrated Design of Window Shading Device and Air Conditioner

The design for phase IV provided design measures such as self-shading of buildings and shading devices on windows that would, if augmented, significantly reduce the need for air-conditioning. However, given the high levels of humidity in Shenzhen during summer months, some use of air conditioners would be necessary to maintain comfort conditions inside residences. Split air-conditioning units, which are used most frequently in housing, require the placement of the condenser unit outside the...

Integrated Urban Ecology Networks

A later project, called Hui Long Guan, was also a satellite community on the urban periphery of Beijing. Our site, called CO2 (the name not being related to clean air or carbon dioxide), was one grid of a matrix comprising approximately one square kilometer of development housing sites. When built, this would become a new town of 40,000-50,000 people. As the land was previously an agricultural region, it seemed appropriate for the design to attempt to develop a broader ecological planning...

Interior Air Temperature

Energy associated with airflow into the building by controlled ventilation and leaks are considered as a function of construction quality. The air inside is assumed to be one well-mixed temperature zone for the entire building. The air temperature is allowed to float between 18 C and 26 C each hour, thus allowing for the influence of the thermal mass. Heating and or cooling are only supplied when the air temperature exceeds one of these temperature limits within each hour. The amount of heating...

Introduction

While the reduction of heating energy remains an Important goal In China, there Is now a pressing need to address cooling energy. The use of air-conditioning Is burgeoning as occupants Increasingly can afford to purchase and operate cooling equipment. In Beijing, for example, formal surveys as well as first-hand experience of the authors and Chinese colleagues suggest that while many people use air-conditioning, others who are unaccustomed to It or are more careful about shading and ventilating...

J

Chapter Ten - Case Study One Beijing Prototype Housing Figure 7 Beijing 12x12 prototype house - elevation study of final design Figure 5 Beijing 12 x 12 prototype house - view of model of an earlier design, showing north and west fa ades Figure 7 Beijing 12x12 prototype house - elevation study of final design Figure 5 Beijing 12 x 12 prototype house - view of model of an earlier design, showing north and west fa ades Figure 9 Floor plans of the 12 x 12 prototype house Figure 10 Section through...

Landscape

The design process addressed the energy needs of winter heating and summer cooling, as well as the social requirements of establishing meaningful connections between public and private space. The design scheme by MIT incorporated a long southern green space that vastly extended into the development, and was broken down into smaller private areas. The creation of a serrated edge, which allowed the public green space to flow into the private courtyards, established a relationship between the...

Maritime

Maritime climates never get too hot or too cold, but there is significant rainfall due to the effect of land and ocean on weather patterns. Light conditions are not extreme. Buildings usually have large fenestrations for maximizing daylight. There is no need for shading or sun protection but good insulation and thermal mass are essential. Buildings can also be effectively naturally ventilated all year round. Traditional buildings have a fireplace that provides for both winter heat and summer...

Materials For Improved Buildings

For the most part, the materials used in Chinese construction are similar to primary building materials Table 1 Approximate energy content of materials in the West (Sources Ashby and Jones 2001 and Brocklesby 2000) Table 1 Approximate energy content of materials in the West (Sources Ashby and Jones 2001 and Brocklesby 2000) Figure 3 Approximate embodied construction energy for structural systems per unit of floor area (Source Cole 1999) Figure 3 Approximate embodied construction energy for...

Mixed Signals

Although more positive messages have come from China's Ministry of Construction in recentyears regarding the regulation of energy consumption in the building industry, many inefficient high-rise buildings with clear glass curtain walls continue to be built in Beijing and other major cities in China. This indicates that the importance and significance of sustainability has yet to be recognized. This book therefore is not only about specific technical solutions to make buildings or communities...

N

National Education Committee 65 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 101 natural ventilation xxi, xxii, 9, 10, 12, 26, 34, 35, 42, 46, 77, 80, 82, 100, 107, 116, 118, 121, 126, 150, 241 cross ventilation 31, 102, 108, 1 14 mechanically assisted ventilation 108 single-sided 108, 110, 114 stack effect 113 stack ventilation 108, 139, 145 NF-Environment Mark 65 control 90 infiltration 194 nonrenewable resources xviii, 2-3, 6, 45, 46 orientation 46, 94, 97, 241 outdoor thermal comfort 117, 118...

N n n

Figure 15b Beijing shading calculations worksheet showing results of overhang, vertical fins, and window shading coefficients on solar radiation and energy per area of window for a south-facing window in June Effect of Floor Finish ori Heating Energy Figure 17 Effect of floor finish on heating energy Figure 18 A selection of sustainable design principles for Beijing

N n n n

Energy per area of window (kWh m ) summed over two-hour periods throughout the day Figure 16a Beijing shading calculations worksheet showing solar radiation and energy per area of window for a south-facing window with an overhang 50 of the window height in September and December Variable - chanqe overhanq and fin depths Month of the year e.g. August - '8') Day of the month day 21 is typical) Overall shading coefficient (S.C)(1 is clear. 0 is opaque Window orientation (M.S.E.W.ME.NW.SE.SW) Solar...

Natural Ventilation Studies

The last ten years have seen a significant shift in the development and integration of environmental, ecological, and energy issues into the architectural design of buildings. Energy-efficient buildings address not only the issues of consumption and performance, but also the development and integration of a series of design and system technologies. Buildings should provide the Climate Region Periods Suitable for Natural Ventilation (NV) and when Air- and Reference City Conditioning (AC) or...

Neighborhoods

The buildings were arranged in groups by site area -north, south, east, west, and central - each with its own distinct community space. For instance, each of the buildings along the eastern portion of the site had an individual courtyard, whereby central building groups enclosed large semi-private plazas. Grass fields lined the northern edge, and a public plaza was located near the center of the site for all residents to use (Figures 24 and 25). In summary, a community space for the site as a...

Noise

Of primary concern on the north side were the railroad tracks and the large amount of consequent noise generated. The north edge of phase IV site bordered the railway to the north. People expect an outside noise infiltration of less than 35 dBA in bedrooms, less than 40 dBA in living and dining rooms, and less than 45 dBA in bathrooms and kitchens (Figure 20). Trains produce 90 dBA of noise, mostly at low frequencies. A traffic barrier can provide up to 15 dBA noise reduction the distance away...

Opportunity for Leadership

The building sector has undergone radical change with a shift from housing supplied by the employer or government to privatized housing. Chinese building developers have an opportunity to demonstrate leadership in sustainable building development. With a modest increase in cost over conventional developments, developers can establish a unique market position in this field. Their buildings will conform to future as well as present building codes. Buyers will be more satisfied with homes that are...

Organization Of This Publication

This project has focused on applications of sustainable design and technologies in three distinct geographical areas of China, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Beijing. Part 1 of this book explores sustainability, its role in the building sector, and general cultural and technological conditions in China it also highlights specific energy concerns and relevant policy issues. Part 2 discusses the specific design methodology that the group has brought to bear on these general conditions. Part 3 defines...

Output Description

All of the output graphics in the program are stacked bar graphs. The red portion of the bar represents heating energy or cost, and the blue portion represents cooling energy or cost. All of the energy results are presented in kilowatt-hours (kWh). Results are shown for up to four scenarios (A, B, C, and D) at the same time, which correspond to the four sets of buttons on the input form. The results shown in this graph represent total loads for an entire year. These quantities are equal to the...

Overview

The primary goal of the software design tool called Building Energy Calculator is to guide consumers, developers and architects toward more energy-efficient buildings. The software is included with the CD at the back of the book, and Figure 1 shows the program interface. The program was written by Jonathan Smith at MIT. Mr. Smith and MIT hold the copyright. Users are free to use the software but may not charge others for copies or charge a fee to others for its use. For a quick start of the...

P p p p p p p p p

Figure 27a Shanghai low-rise project ground floor unit breakdown, comprised of five types of unit designs studio, one-bedroom, two-bedroom, three-bedroom, and four-bedroom Figure 27b Shanghai low-rise project second floor unit breakdown, comprised of five types of unit designs studio, one-bedroom, two-bedroom, three-bedroom, and four-bedroom Figure 27c Shanghai low-rise project third floor unit breakdown, comprised of four types of unit designs studio, one-bedroom, two-bedroom, and...

Passive Cooling Strategies

In order to remove heat gains from buildings, it is necessary to use at least one of the heat sinks available in nature, such as the atmosphere and the ground (including large water bodies such as rivers, ponds, and underground water). Passive cooling systems transfer part of the building's internal heat gains into these heat sinks with little or no use of mechanical systems. Passive-cooling systems can be grouped into five main types (Givoni 1994). 1. Daytime ventilation (comfort ventilation)...

Passive Solar Gain

It is recognized that in northern climates such as Beijing, adding well-insulated window area on the south fa ade can have a positive influence on heating energy requirements. The values for Figures 12 and 13 were calculated using the Building Energy Calculator included with this book. These studies assumed a well-insulated 6-story building, 70 meters east-west by 10 meters north-south with tight construction in Beijing, with a window area of 20 percent for all north, east, and west walls....

Policy

The building sectors in developing countries share several characteristics important to policy design. Rapid growth or transition to a market economy creates a dynamic economic environment with little history to learn from. The disproportionate distribution of wealth that often accompanies rapid development must be addressed when balancing who will pay for investments. Furthermore, financial markets must be developed to provide the resources needed for such investments. Along with the...

Policy And Regulation Recommendations For Improved Buildings

Using better materials Is limited by the deficiencies In the building materials Industries. Availability of high-quality materials and assemblies In China Is limited and the demand for more sophisticated products Is low. When developers are motivated to build with better materials, either by regulation, persuasive governmental suggestion (as for example, through the Ministry of Construction), or economic Incentive, they are often frustrated by a lack of availability and prohibitive costs. At...

Porous Paving

The surface treatment of any large development is an essential aspect of its sustainability. While similar projects often feature vast areas of non-porous surfacing, such as concrete and blacktop, they require an enormous expense involved in building substantial storm water runoff systems. These systems also fail to recover rainwater that can be used to recharge local aquifers. Beijing experiences both periods of heavy rain whereby the volume of water overwhelms local sewer systems, as well as...

Potential For Alternative Construction Earthen And Strawbale Buildings

Alternative construction techniques and building materials may offer a wider range of solutions for residential buildings in China. While there are many to consider, the two highlighted here have both proven themselves as successful building techniques for residential buildings in various regions of China. These two methods have shown good potential in bringing together inexpensive and plentiful labor with local materials to provide for appropriate and necessary housing as well as employment...

Principles and Case Studies for Low Energy Design

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. and Fox Lin, Inc., Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. ISBN-13 978-1-4020-4786-2 (e-book) P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands. www. springer. com Every effort has been made to contact the copyright holders of the articles which have been reproduced from other sources. Anyone who has not been properly credited is requested to contact the publishers, so that due acknowledgements may be made in subsequent editions. All...

Project Background

As environmental concerns become more Important at the local, regional, and global level, more awareness must be paid to the development of sustainable buildings. Buildings are accountable for a large portion of resources and energy in addition to producing a substantial amount of environmental pollutants. The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has made the Increase of energy efficiency in China vital to the general goal of sustainable world development. The aim of the Sustainable Urban...

Recommendations

This research shows that significant energy savings can be obtained through strategic design of both the building features and the detail components. The use of insulation on the exterior walls provided the greatest savings on the heating load. The use of upgraded window components provided the greatest reduction of cooling load. Important components to consider included items such as shading devices for the summer sun or a lower solar heat gain coefficient on window glazing, as in a low...

References

Energy Information Administration. 2001. China Environmental Issues. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. Energy Information Administration 200a. 2001. Annual Energy Outlook 2001 with Projections to 2020. Report No. D0E EAI-0380 (2001). Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. Energy Information Administration. 200b. 2001 .Annual Energy Outlook 2001. Report No. D0E EIA-0383 (2001). Energy Information Administration,...

Reform of Heating Prices

In pre-reform China, prices of all energy products were under unified state control and were allocated according to central plans. Multi-track pricing and partial liberalization was introduced in the 1980s. Energy prices, beginning with coal, were freed to a great extent, in parallel with important new reforms in taxation, finance, and other areas, in the early 1990s. Historically, and often still today, consumers either receive heat as a welfare commodity or are billed for heat based on...

Residential User Manual

As discussed in chapter 4, a great majority of a building's energy use is for operation during its lifetime. Therefore it is important that the end users be aware of operating procedures in order to maximize the benefits of energy-efficient housing. The residential user manual summarized in Table 11 and was written for future occupants as an informative tool to guide them in intelligently controlling their homes for both comfort and energy efficiency. The information serves as a guide to obtain...

Results

The analysis uses two criteria to evaluate the passive cooling systems (1) the number of hours of thermal Figure 4 Study 1 - the case studied (a) represents the six-story residential building simulated, and (b) shows the detailed layout of a unit in the building with north winds Figure 4 Study 1 - the case studied (a) represents the six-story residential building simulated, and (b) shows the detailed layout of a unit in the building with north winds Table 2 Study 1 - description of the cases...

Scheme II

A primary goal was to develop a strategy that could both keep hot temperatures out during the summer and allow solar gains to be optimized during the winter. In order to do this, the buildings were oriented 10 west of north to let the winter morning sun in (Figure 13). The design team then performed sun-angle light studies on this strategy (Figure 14). Scheme II was based on the findings of these studies and incorporated a south-facing sunspace and open balconies to aid in shading the building...

Scheme III

This scheme differed from schemes I and II by dividing the program into three smaller buildings instead of two larger buildings. In doing so, it was able to interweave green space with public and semi-public activity areas. The developer selected this scheme, and the final design Figure 13 In the site plan of scheme II, buildings are oriented 10 west of north Figure 13 In the site plan of scheme II, buildings are oriented 10 west of north Figure 14 Sun angle studies for scheme II with 1 m...

Series 2 Simulations

The second series of simulations is summarized in Figure 17. Simulation 1 is identical to Simulation 7 from the first set of simulations and defines reasonable measures to reduce indoor overheating. Simulation 2 of the second series showed a further modest improvement by eliminating solar heat gains through the roof. This can be done in practice by heavily insulating the roof or venting a cavity under the outer roofing material and above the living space. For the simulation, we set the solar...

Shading

Shading studies were performed to assess daylighting and shading, as well as to show that the new scheme, with a larger number of shallower buildings, provided the desired density number while satisfying the winter sunlight code. The reduction in building width also increased daylight and natural ventilation penetration into the unit interiors. The shading studies are shown in Figure 31. Figure 29a Site design intention - allow summer winds from the south to penetrate Figure 29a Site design...

Single Sided Ventilation in a Building

The building studied is a student dormitory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Single-sided ventilation was evaluated for a typical room that is 4.7 meters long, 2.9 meters wide, and 2.8 meters high. The general room model used throughout the study is shown in Figure 15. The furniture within this room consisted of a bed, desk, closet, and bookcase. The heat sources were a computer (300 W), a TV set (300 W), and one occupant (100 W). For each of the heat sources, convective and radiative heat transfer...

Site Level Studies

The studies shown in this section involve the simulation of indoor and outdoor airflow by CFD. The developer preferred the final scheme (scheme III), but wished to convert the proposed design into two buildings rather than three. MIT simulated the effects of this change on natural ventilation within units, the results of which are shown in Figures 31 through 36. The CFD studies modeled surrounding buildings and were based on both the model illustrated in Figure 31 and the following assumptions...

Solutions

The solution to increasing energy demands cannot be just corresponding increases in supplies. More efficient use of energy to meet the needs for shelter, comfort, lighting, information technologies, and the like not only reduces the overall demand in many cases, investment in more efficient consumption technologies is more economical than the corresponding increase in the supply side. For example, older residential buildings in northern China, built circa 1960 and 1970, were constructed of...

Study 1 Simulation Of Ventilative Cooling In Beijing And Shanghai

We evaluated the performance of two passive-cooling strategies, daytime ventilation and night cooling, for a generic, six-story suburban residential in Beijing and Shanghai. The investigation used a coupled, transient-simulation approach to model heat transfer and airflow in the units. Wind-driven ventilation was simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Occupant thermal comfort was assessed with Fanger's comfort model (ISO 1994). The results showed that night cooling is superior to...

Study 2 Improving Thermal Comfort In Beijing Housing

This investigation considered whether careful attention to architectural design and use of mechanical ventilation are sufficient to maintain thermal comfort in dwellings in Beijing without the use of vapor-compression air-conditioning equipment. The study was motivated by a desire to define strategies that would reduce building operating costs, energy demands, potential environmental impacts associated with energy usage, and potential occupant dissatisfaction with air- conditioning due to...

Study 3 Lowenergy Building Design In Shenzhen

This study focused on a new residential development in Shenzhen. The issues addressed included siting of the buildings, shading of windows, and control of noise. The study produced a set of recommendations aimed toward reducing energy consumption and noise levels in the proposed houses. Figure 19 shows the site as modeled for an airflow study. The existing buildings are at the top of the figure to the east of the proposed houses. Note that the proposed buildings are very strongly aligned on...

Suggested Policies to Drive Adoption of Sustainable Buildings

Policy options are plentiful, and will be most effective if implemented as part of a portfolio of programs. Perhaps the most effective course of action is for demonstration projects to be built, tested by a reputable source, and publicized. This would serve to minimize the perceived risk of new technologies and methods. Demand-side management (DSM) programs, in which utilities offer subsidies for such investments, offer yet another way to leverage incentives for energy-efficient building...

Summary

Sustainability in the building sector must include considerations of nonrenewable resources, starting with land use, as well as construction materials and energy. Buildings in the developed world consume more energy than transportation or the industrial sector. As China develops, the building sector might reach this same level. There isn't a single silver bullet in energy - it is clear that energy efficiency is more cost effective in many instances than increase in energysupplies. Well-designed...

Summary of Technical Recommendations

The technical recommendations are summarized in Tables 7 and 8. Each table ranks each recommendation with one, two, or three stars, depending on its importance to the sustainability of the design. Energy simulations were run for various combinations of upgrades, and these are summarized for north-south and east-west oriented buildings in Figure 22. If all recommendations are implemented, energy savings of up to 2000 kWh ( 60 percent) annually are predicted compared to the base case, which was...