Commercial Real Estate Financing
The economic downturn in the commercial real estate industry has diminished the importance of climate change and alternative energy sources as a factor in real estate investment decisions, according to a survey of U.S. financial leaders conducted by the Urban Land Institute. More than 200 responses were tallied from executives in U.S. investment funds, institutional investors, real estate investment trusts, and banks.
Before acknowledging this year's winners, we'd like to take a moment to thank our judges Lee Durston, building scientist at BCRA in Tacoma, Wash. Dan Heinfeld, senior principal and president of LPA, in Irvine, Calif. Dan Rockhill, J. L. Constant distinguished professor of architecture at Kansas University in Lawrence, Kan. and Paul Torcellini, commercial building research group manager at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo.
In nineteenth century industrial and commercial buildings that in more recent years have been converted into residential accommodation. However, the use of a flat roof to fully cover a complete house, or a large section of a house, was relatively uncommon until the middle years of the twentieth century.
Count the number of wires coming into the house. If there are two wires (FIG. 12-1), the electrical service for the house is inadequate. Two-wire service provides only 110 volts, not 110 220 volts. There should be three wires coming into the house from the electrical service entry. (See FIG. 12-2.) Three-wire service provides 110 220 volts. In some cases, there might be four wires. Four-wire service also provides 110 220 volts but is unusual in a residential structure. It is usually found on a structure with heavy electrical demands such as an industrial or commercial building. The inlet service voltage might vary slightly so that in some areas it might be 120 240 rather than 110 220 volts. The difference is of no concern to the homeowner.
If the solar wall heating is designed for a large contribution to heating (large solar fraction), passive measures against overheating in summer might not be sufficient. In this case, active shading elements have to be used. This also occurs if inhabitants do not tolerate temperature swings (for example, in an office building). The costs for active shading are considerable. The reason is that either the shading device must be integrated within the transparent insulation product or an external robust shading device must be installed. Wiring, weather protection, control from inside and power connection for motor drives add to the cost of the fa ade. If possible, shading should be combined for both windows and transparent insulation to reduce extra costs. Active shading adds about 200 to 250 m2 to the costs of the transparently insulated fa ade and should be avoided.
In the summer of 2002, the MOC approved the development of a national code for commercial buildings. In the northern zone (heating zone), residential building energy codes have existed since the early 1990s, although they have been enforced only since the late 1990s in Beijing and Tianjin. In the transition zone (formally known as the hot-summer cold-winter region), local residential energy standards were developed in the late 1990s for numerous cities and provinces, including Chongqing, Wuhan, Jiangsu, and Shanghai. This was followed by a national effort that ended in the promulgation of a national energy efficiency standard for the transition zone in October 2001. A residential standard for the southern zone (formally known as the hot-summer warm-winter region) was also initiated in July 2001, with completion planned for the end of 2002 and promulgation in early 2003. Work on the national commercial building energy standard was started in September 2002 (Huang and Tu 2001, Huang...
It also requires separate water meters for nonresidential buildings' indoor and outdoor water use, with a requirement for moisture-sensing irrigation systems for larger landscape projects and mandatory inspections of energy systems such as heat furnaces, air conditioners, and mechanical equipment, for nonresidential buildings over 10,000 square feet. The California Air Resources Board estimates that the mandatory provisions will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the equivalent of 3 million metric tons in 2020.
Using local resources also addressed the goal of creating a carbon-neutral facility. At the time of construction, the center met Architecture 2030 Challenge goals and was designed to consume zero net energy. In fact, the plans called for it to produce more than 110 percent of its annual building energy needs and use 70 percent less energy than a median office building designed to code. To save energy, the heating and cooling systems on the site are separated by an underground earth tube system that significantly reduces the amount of air delivered to each building. The tubes are constructed of 24-inch-diameter cement pipes that run air through a filtering system in the basement where a UV lamp removes mold and bacteria from the air before it is circulated.
Modern architecture in Beijing has diverged in its approach to controlling solar radiation. A very successful courtyard housing project made good use of shading, as is shown in Figure 5. High-rise towers offer no shading and are overexposed to the sun, as shown in Figure 6. Inspiration for effective shading of schools, office buildings, and multi-story residential buildings can be derived from experiences in other countries, including India (Figure 7) and Zimbabwe (Figure 8). Figure 8 Shading can be incorporated into mid-rise and high-rise buildings. This office building in Harare, Zimbabwe, uses shading to reduce heat gains and heavy construction to moderate indoor temperature swings. Ventilation is provided by fans, but there are no chillers. Figure 8 Shading can be incorporated into mid-rise and high-rise buildings. This office building in Harare, Zimbabwe, uses shading to reduce heat gains and heavy construction to moderate indoor temperature swings. Ventilation is provided by...
The building sector has an important impact on air pollution, solid waste generation, water consumption, and wastewater production. Much of this is tied to the by-product of energy generation. In the developed world, people spend 90 percent of the time inside buildings. One means to reduce energy consumption in buildings is to reduce ventilation rates from outdoors. Occupants of many new commercial buildings suffer from deteriorating indoor air quality. The challenge is to develop sustainable buildings that reduce waste emissions to the outside while simultaneously improving environmental quality within the building. There are new technologies that will meet both requirements. Examples will be presented in later chapters.
In the Western world, building operations account for about one-third of the annual energy consumption. Figure 1 shows the energy consumption in the major sectors of the United States. It is surprising to many observers that over the last several decades, the combination of residential and commercial buildings has consumed more energy than the sum of all forms of transportation in the United States. In China, it is estimated that the construction industry accounts for 37 percent of national energy use (Asia Pulse 2006).
Fixture renovations can be made at any time using a new generation of low-flow toilets, sinks, urinals, and other appliances. So-called High-Efficiency Toilets (HETs) use 20 percent less water per flush, which is 1.28 gallons, and are now required for all new product sales in California and Texas. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) WaterSense program already certifies low-flow toilets, bathroom sinks, and urinals for commercial buildings. In the pipeline are low-flow showerheads, pre-rinse spray valves for commercial kitchens, and landscape irrigation controllers. The EPA has announced a WaterSense Home specification for builders that will complement the existing Energy Star program for new homes. Over time, WaterSense Homes could reduce water consumption by 20 percent, depending on the efficiency of the devices installed.
CALL FOR NOMINATIONS The California Sustainabil-ity Alliance's 2009 Sustainability Showcase Awards DEADLINE FOR SUBMISSION Oct. 30 DETAILS The California Sustainability Alliance is now accepting nominations for its 2009 Sustainability Showcase Awards, which aim to recognize successful sustainable policies, programs, practices, and technologies implemented by leading organizations that work in California. The alliance is seeking nominees in five areas commercial buildings, multifamily housing, local government, water agencies, and sellers of other products and services.
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